Types of Fiscal Limits for Local Governments Essay Question
Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References
Types of Fiscal Limits for Local Governments Essay Question
Potential Essay Questions
Short Answer Essays: There are five questions included in this file. I will be selecting three for the exam. You will answer your favorite two questions. If you are doing calculations, show your work. Remember that grammar counts and your grade will depend on the quality of your answer, not the quantity.
- Suppose a state is considering three different types of fiscal limits for local governments in the state–a maximum property tax rate, a limit that property tax revenue may not increase more than population and inflation rate together, or a limit that spending may not increase more than five percent. In each case, the limit may be exceeded by majority vote. Which limit is most restrictive and why? Contrast the three in terms of the sources of allowed increases in taxes or spending and the potential effect on local services.
- “If the Baumol hypothesis is correct concerning local government finances, and if the price elasticity of demand for local services is inelastic, then we are in trouble–eventually, spending for education, police and fire protection, and sanitation will require half of our incomes.” Evaluate this concern. What changes could occur to prevent this from happening?
- Suppose your state provides a number of parks with majestic mountains, beautiful beaches, and unspoiled wilderness areas. These parks were acquired and operated in the past using the state’s general tax revenue. Now the state proposed to charge a daily entrance fee of $10 per vehicle, with the revenue earmarked for the “state park fund” (to be used for operating expenses, capital improvements, and acquisition of new parks). At a public hearing on the proposal, one citizen complained, “It is unfair to require taxpayers who have paid for these parks with their tax dollars to now also pay a fee to use them.” As director of the state parks department, how would you respond to this citizen?
- Because nonresidents benefit from local government public-safety services, suppose that the federal government offers localities a matching, open-ended categorical grant equal to $1 for $1 of local tax money spent on public safety.
- What is the effect of this grant on the price of spending for public safety to these localities? How might the grant correct for the spillover problem?
- Suppose the Central City currently levies a property tax for public safety at a rate of $10 per $1,000 of taxable value on a base of $10 million of taxable property. If the price elasticity of demand for public safety in Central City is 0.2, calculate and explain the expected effect of the grant on public-safety spending, public-safety taxes, and tax rates in Central City. (Show your work.)
- “Exempting the interest on state and local government bonds from federal income taxation is the lowest cost way for the federal government to subsidize state and local borrowing costs.” Evaluate this statement.
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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