Theoretical Bases For Making An Ethical Decision
Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References
Theoretical Bases For Making An Ethical Decision
Test #2 Ethical Case Analysis – 2018
Please write an analytical essay [five double-spaced page maximum], with a specific and detailed thesis statement, using formal business English, addressing the following issues in the article below:
What are the ethical issues for the relevant primary and secondary stakeholders
applying the “theoretical bases for making an ethical decision”?
What might be the biases affecting the relevant stakeholders?
Specify and justify what should be the “best” regulatory policy regarding autonomous vehicles’ AI based on the ethical implications and your analysis that you see for the stakeholders.
Please incorporate specific relevant concepts and vocabulary from the readings into your essay.
Do not use any outside research or sources.
Footnotes/references to course articles go on additional pages.
What if your self-driving car decides one death is better than two — and that one is you?
By Sarah Kaplan October 28, 2015
The year is 2035. The world’s population is 9 billion. The polar ice caps have totally melted and Saudi Arabia has run out of oil. Will Smith is battling murderous robots. Matt Damon is stranded on Mars. Dippin’ Dots is finally the ice cream of the present.
You’re humming along in your self-driving car, chatting on your iPhone 37 while the machine navigates on its own. Then a swarm of people appears in the street, right in the path of the oncoming vehicle.
There’s a calculation to be made — avoid the crowd and crash the owner, or stay on track and take many lives? — and no one is at the wheel to make it. Except, of course, the car itself.
Now that this hypothetical future looks less and less like a “Jetsons” episode and more like an inevitability (well, except for the bit about Dippin’ Dots), makers of self-driving cars — and the millions of people they hope will buy them — have some ethical questions to ask themselves: Should cars be programmed for utilitarianism when lives are at stake? Who is responsible for the consequences? And above all, are we comfortable with an algorithm making those decisions for us? In a new study , researchers from MIT, the University of Oregon and the Toulouse School of Economics went ahead and got some answers.
These are heady questions folks, so buckle up.
The authors of the study, which has been pre-released online but is not yet published in a peer reviewed journal, are psychologists, not philosophers. Rather than seeking the most moral algorithm, they wanted to know what algorithm potential participants in a self-driving world would be most comfortable with.
Given the potential safety benefits of self-driving cars (a recent report estimated that 21,700 fewer people would die on roads where 90 percent of vehicles were autonomous), the authors write, figuring out how to make consumers comfortable with them is both a commercial necessity and a moral imperative. That means that car makers need to “adopt moral algorithms that align with human moral attitudes.”
So what are those attitudes? The researchers developed a series of surveys based on the age-old “ trolley problem ” to figure them out. In one hypothetical, participants had to choose between driving into a pedestrian or swerving into a barrier, killing the passenger. Others were given the same hypothetical, but had the potential to save 10 pedestrians. Another survey asked if they’d be more comfortable swerving away from 10 people into a barrier, killing the passenger, or into a single pedestrian, killing that person. Sometimes the participants were asked to imagine themselves as the person in the car, other times, as someone outside it. Everyone was asked “What should a human driver do in this situation?” and then, “What about a self-driving car?”
The results largely supported the idea of autonomous vehicles pre-programmed for utilitarianism (sacrificing one life in favor of many). The respondents were generally comfortable with an algorithm that allowed a car to kill its driver in order to save 10 pedestrians. They even favored laws that enforced this algorithm, even though they didn’t think human drivers should be legally required to sacrifice their own lives in the same situation.
Though the survey participants largely agreed autonomous vehicles should be utilitarian, they didn’t necessarily believe the cars would be programmed that way. More than a third of respondents said they thought manufacturers might make cars that protected the passenger, regardless of the number of lives that might be lost.
They had good reason to feel that way: when asked if they would buy a car that would sacrifice its passenger to save other lives, most people balked. Even though they wanted other people to buy self-driving cars — they make roads safer! they’re better for the environment! they serve the greater good! — they were less willing to buy such cars themselves. At the end of the day, most people know they’d feel uncomfortable buying a car that could kill them if it needed to, and most car makers know that too.
Those responses came from just a few hundred people, and there are still many questions that linger about cars that can make life and death decisions on their own, but “figuring out how to build ethical autonomous machines is one of the thorniest challenges in artificial intelligence today,” the study’s authors argue. “As we are about to endow millions of vehicles with autonomy, taking algorithmic morality seriously has never been more urgent.”
Plenty of people agree. The past year or so has seen a surge in studies, surveys and think pieces on the kinds of moral calculations we might assign to self-driving cars. For example, should people be able to choose a “morality setting” on their self-driving car before getting in? California Polytechnic ethicist and Robot Ethics editor Patrick Lin , writing in Wired last year, says no: “In an important sense, any injury that results from our ethics setting may be premeditated if it’s foreseen,” he said. “… This premeditation is the difference between manslaughter and murder, a much more serious offense.”
Another big question: Will, at some point, humans be banned from driving altogether? Stanford political scientist Ken Shotts said that could happen.
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
GET THIS PROJECT NOW BY CLICKING ON THIS LINK TO PLACE THE ORDER
Do You Have Any Other Essay/Assignment/Class Project/Homework Related to this? Click Here Now [CLICK ME]and Have It Done by Our PhD Qualified Writers!!
Tired of getting an average grade in all your school assignments, projects, essays, and homework? Try us today for all your academic schoolwork needs. We are among the most trusted and recognized professional writing services in the market.
We provide unique, original and plagiarism-free high quality academic, homework, assignments and essay submissions for all our clients. At our company, we capitalize on producing A+ Grades for all our clients and also ensure that you have smooth academic progress in all your school term and semesters.
High-quality academic submissions, A 100% plagiarism-free submission, Meet even the most urgent deadlines, Provide our services to you at the most competitive rates in the market, Give you free revisions until you meet your desired grades and Provide you with 24/7 customer support service via calls or live chats.