tensions between individual freedom and social institutions schoolwork
Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References
tensions between individual freedom and social institutions schoolwork
Write a 2–3-page essay on a selected issue related to the tension between individual freedom and social institutions.
By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies
- Competency 1: Explain the nature of ethical issues.
. Explain the ethical basis for the relation of individuals to their government.
- Competency 2: Critically examine the contributions of key thinkers from the history of ethics.
. Describe the social contract theories of Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau.
- Competency 3: Engage in ethical debate.
. Assess the advantages and disadvantages of these theories as they relate to a selected issue.
- Competency 4: Develop a position on a contemporary ethical issue.
. Apply traditional social contract theories to a selected contemporary issue.
- Competency 5: Communicate effectively in the context of personal and professional moral discourse.
. Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with expectations for members of professional communities.
Another dose of ethical theory, focused this time on social organization. Several political philosophers have explained the foundation of governmental authority in terms of a fictional social contract:
- Individuals are purely selfish, so they naturally exist in a state of war with all
- In self-defense, we join together under the authority of a sovereign who rules
- In nature, rational agents have equal right to enforce the natural law
- For protection of “life, liberty, and property” we consent to be governed
- (Notice the influence of this approach on founders of the United States.)
- We are born free, so any agreement to join together is purely voluntary
- Each individual freely chooses to serve the “general will,” the welfare of all
Present-day nations exhibit a variety of social organizations:
- Authoritarian: absolute power in a single dictator who imposes power over everyone
- Elitist: a small group rules for all, based on birth family, wealth, or merit
- Democratic: everyone participates in governance, usually by electing representatives
Under any form of government, the fundamental question is how much freedom individual citizens retain in the face of legitimate authority. If we accept the need for some protection of the public good, we must submit in some circumstances, but each of us wishes to pursue our own choices within that broad framework.
With respect for justice, we allow the law to prevent us from harming each other, but otherwise we like to be left alone.
Questions to consider
o deepen your understanding, you are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of the business community.
As you think about the theme “freedom and authority,” consider addressing the following questions:
- Which version of social contract theory offers the best understanding of your issue?
- How much individual freedom is compatible with the legitimate authority of government?
- What solution do you defend for the issue you have selected?
The following optional resources are provided to support you in completing the assessment or to provide a helpful context. For additional resources, refer to the Research Resources and Supplemental Resources in the left navigation menu of your courseroom.
- Hobbes, T. (2001). Leviathan. South Bend, IN: Infomotions, Inc.
. Parts I and II.
- Cudd, A., & Eftekhari, S. (2017). Contractarianism.Stanfield Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/contractarianism/
. Pages 1–11.
- Kemerling, G. (2011). Hobbes’s Leviathan. The Philosophy Pages. Available from http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/3x.htm#mech
. Pages 1–3.
- Lloyd, S. A., & Sreedhar, S. (2018). Hobbes’s moral and political philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hobbes-moral/
. Pages 1–8.
- Williams, G. (n.d.). Thomas Hobbes: Moral and political philosophy. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy?. Retrieved from https://www.iep.utm.edu/hobmoral/
. Pages 1–18.
- Locke, J., & Cox, R. H. (Ed.). (1982). Second treatise of government. Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson.
- Kemerling, G. (2011). Locke: Social order. Philosophy Pages. Available from http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/4n.htm
. Pages 1–4.
- Moseley, A. (n.d.). John Locke: Political philosophy. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from https://www.iep.utm.edu/locke-po/
. Pages 1–37.
- Tuckness, A. (2016). Locke’s political philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/locke-political/
. Pages 1–19.
- Wraight, C. D. (2008). Rousseau’s the social contract: A reader’s guide. London, UK: Continuum.
- Bertram, C. (2010, September 27). Jean Jacques Rousseau. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/rousseau/
. Pages 1–20.
- Delaney, J. J. (n.d.). Jean-Jacques Rousseau: 4. The social contract. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/rousseau/#H4
. Pages 11–12.
- Kemerling, G. (2011). Rousseau. Philosophy Pages. Available from http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/5d.htm
. Pages 1–3.
- Skillsoft. (n.d.). Overcoming your own unconscious biases [Tutorial].
. The systemic influence of cultural presumptions often infringes upon individual freedom. Use this Skillsoft video to explore the biases to which we may be susceptible.
. Running time: 22:00.
- Skillsoft. (n.d.). Influence others with political savvy [Tutorial].
. This Skillsoft tutorial describes some workplace opportunities to deal with the potential conflict between collective limitations on individual freedom.
. Running time: 22:00.
- NBC Learn. (n.d.). EPA head Scott Pruitt faces growing ethics controversy [Video].
. In this video, you will see an example of ethical standards in government.
. Running time: 01:33.
- NBC Learn. (n.d). Arizona governor poised to veto anti-gay bill? [Video].
. In this video, you will see an example of governmental infringement on individual rights.
. Running time: 03:09.
General Education Information Research Skills Library Guide
A Capella University library guide has been created for your use in General Education courses. The General Education Information Research Skills Library Guide contains tips on how to use the Capella University Library to find resources for your General Education courses. You are encouraged to refer to the resources in this library guide to direct your research in this course.
Note: This Program Guide supports the Essential Undergraduate Learning Outcome of Information Literacy.
Political philosophy concerns itself with the formation and maintenance of civil societies. Its central theme is the need to explain the relationship between individual human beings and their governments. You have been considering several specific examples of the tension between individual freedom and social institutions. From among those examples, you have chosen one as the focus for your own views on freedom and authority.
Your assessment is to write an essay assessing the issue you selected, both in terms of versions of social contract theory proposed by Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau and from your own view of the proper relation between society and the individual.
Address the following concepts in your essay:
- Explain the ethical basis for the relation of individuals to their government
- Describe the theories of Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau about how societies are organized.
- Assess the strengths and weaknesses of the theories in justifying the imposition of authority over individuals.
- Apply these social contract theories to the issue you have selected.
Your instructor may provide video feedback on your work, as well as completing the official scoring guide for the assessment.
- Written communication: Ensure written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message.
- APA formatting: Format resources and citations according to current APA style guidelines.
- Number of resources: Use your judgment to ensure your topic is thoroughly researched. There is no minimum number of resources required, however.
- Length of paper: Submit 2–3 typed, double-spaced pages.
- Font and font size: Use Arial, 12-point font.
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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