SPU 25 Energy and Climate
Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References
SPU 25 Energy and Climate
SPU 25 Energy and Climate: Vision for the Future, Spring 2018
Homework Set #3 Electricity and Energy. DUE Monday 3/12/18 (1:00 pm in lecture)
Name: _____________________________________ Section: __________ TF: _____________________ Score: ______/_______
Electricity consumption is a large fraction of our overall energy use. Electricity is generated using both fossil fuels and renewable energy sources. In this assignment, you’ll review the basics of electricity, some energy sources, and examine electricity flow and efficiency. [40 points total]
Conceptual and quantitative problems. You will only receive credit if you show all your work and write legibly.
1 .A circuit includes a 9 V battery and a copper wire of a given length and diameter. You measure the current in the wire to be 1.5 Amperes.
- What is the resistance of the wire? Your answer should be in Ohms. [1.5 pts]
- With this battery and wire, how much power can be provided? Report your answer in Watts. [1.5 pts]
- What changes could you make to the wire to increase the power? [1.5 pts]
- If you half the resistance of the wire, what is the power output? [1.5 pts]
- If you double the voltage of the battery, what is the power output? [1.5 pts]
- You have been using a 75W traditional incandescent light bulb in your desk lamp. However, in a SPU 25 section, you have learned about LED light bulbs and decided to replace your inefficient light bulb with a 12W LED that provides the same amount of light.
- Assuming that you are using your lamp for 5 hours per day and the electricity rate is 15 cents per kilowatt-hour, what is your annual energy cost savings? [2.5 pts]
- The incandescent bulb cost about $0.75, and the LED bulb cost about $6.00. Based on the energy savings, does the LED bulb save you money in the long run? For more information, visit: http://energy.gov/energysaver/lighting-choices-save-you-money. [2 pt]
3.At the large scale, electricity cannot be effectively stored with current technology. In other words, the electricity generated and transmitted over the power lines needs to match the electricity that is being used. ISO New England is an organization that carefully predicts how much energy will be used in the New England power grid during every hour of every day. They then communicate with energy generating companies (nuclear, solar, gas-burning power plants, etc.) to supply the most economic electricity to the grid at a certain time. Visit the ISO New England website: http://www.iso-ne.com.
- What is the current actual demand (MW) and fuel mix (percentages)? [1 pt]
- Describe the daily pattern of system demand (i.e. what time of day is energy use high or low). [1 pt]
- At the top of the page, click on the “About Us” tab. Under “Our Three Critical Roles,” click on “Operating the Power System.” Read the section “Forecasting New England’s Electricity Use.”
What three factors largely determine the hourly demand for electricity? [2 pt]
- At the top of the page, click on the “About Us” tab again. Under “Key Grid and Market Stats,” click on “Electricity Use.” Scroll down and read the section “Long-Term Changes in Annual and
Peak Demand.” What is the biggest determinant of electricity demand in any given year? What are three additional factors that have played a role in the decreased energy demand since 2005? [2 pts]
- Read the report from ISO New England on air emissions from electricity generation: https://www.iso-ne.com/about/key-stats/air-emissions. What are the top 4 factors that have contributed to a reduction in emissions from electricity generators? [2 pts]
- Energy Flow
4.The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory publishes flow charts for energy for multiple countries and states. Visit https://flowcharts.llnl.gov/commodities/energy.
- If the going rate for electricity is $0.15/kWh, what is the “cost” of the wasted energy from electricity? Report your answers in trillionsof dollars. [2 pts]
- What is the fate of most of this “rejected energy?” Energy cannot be created or destroyed, so where does it go? [1 pt]
5.The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory published flow charts for both energy and carbon (https://flowcharts.llnl.gov/commodities).
2010 2014 Energy Use CO2 Emissions Energy Use CO2 Emissions (Quads) (million metric (Quads) (million metric tons) tons) Solar 0.130 0 0.427 0 Nuclear 8.40 0 8.33 0 Hydro 2.50 0 2.47 0 Wind 0.920 0 1.73 0 Geothermal 0.210 0.4 0.202 0.400 Natural Gas 25.0 1286 27.5 1440
Coal 21.0 1985 17.9 1710 Biomass 3.50 0 4.78 0 Petroleum 36.0 2362 34.8 2260 Total 98.0 5632 98.3 5410
- Note that between 2010 and 2014, CO2 emissions decreased even though energy use increased. Look closely at which energy sources and emissions increased and which decreased. Explain the decrease in CO2 emissions based on these data and what you have learned in class. [2 pts]
- Energy Efficiency
6.According to energycalculator.com, an average 14-15 inch laptop runs at about 60 W.
- Assuming that every undergraduate in Harvard College (about 6,700) uses their laptop for six hours per day, how much energy is consumed per day? Report your answer in kWh. [1 pt]
- How much of each fuel below is needed to supply this amount of energy each day? Assume 100% efficiency. Show your work and report your answers in kilograms in the table below. [2pts]
- How much CO2 results from the needed amount of fuel each day? Show your work and report your answer in kilograms in the table below. [2 pts]
Fuel Energy Content Carbon Footprint Daily Harvard College laptop use (kWh/kg) (g CO2 eq/kWh)* Fuel (kg) CO2 Footprint (kg) Coal 8.3 900 Oil 13.0 650 Natural Gas 15.4 420 Uranium (breeder) 2.2*107 5
- What did you find most surprising or interesting from this homework assignment? Why? [3 points]
8.BONUS: Can you identify immigrants who had a major influence on US technology? If you have a candidate or candidates, give a brief summary paragraph on why you think they belong in this technology Hall of Fame. [4 points] We already mentioned:
- Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922)
- Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)
- Elon Musk (1971- )
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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