Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
N6130: Module 4 Short Answer Essays
Name (-1 point if missing):
Date (-1 point if missing):
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Population of Focus (i.e., FNP, PNP, leadership, etc., or “none”) (-1 point if missing):
1. Read the scenario below, answer the questions that follow and please give reasons for your answers.
Brusser and Janosy wanted to test the effectiveness of a new relaxation/biofeedback intervention on menopausal symptoms. They invited women who presented themselves in an outpatient clinic with complaints of severe hot flashes to participate in the study of the experimental treatment. These 50 women were asked to record, every day for 3 weeks before the intervention, the frequency and duration of their hot flashes. The intervention itself involved five 1-hour sessions over a period of 1 week. Then, for the 3 weeks after the treatment, the women were asked to record their hot flashes again every day. At the end of the study, Brusser and Janosy found that both the frequency and average duration of the hot flashes had been significantly reduced in this sample of 50 women. They concluded that their intervention was an effective therapy in treating menopausal hot flashes.
a. Was there random assignment in this study? Explain. (5 points)
b. Is the design experimental, quasi-experimental, or nonexperimental? Explain. (5 points)
c. Discuss ways in which this study achieved or failed to achieve the criteria for making causal inferences. (5 points)
2. Read below a fictitious study, answer the questions that follow and please justify your answers:
Brady hypothesized that inadequate social support among the elderly results in a high level of chronic health problems and low morale. She tested this hypothesis by interviewing a sample of 250 residents of one community who were aged 65 years and older. The participants were randomly selected from a list of town residents. Brady asked a series of questions about the availability of socioemotional supports (e.g., whether the participants lived with any kin, whether they had any living children who resided within 30 minutes away, whether they belonged to any clubs or social groups). Based on responses to the various questions on social support, participants were classified in one of three groups: low social support, moderate social support, and high social support. In a 6-month follow-up interview, Brady collected information from 214 participants about the frequency, type, and intensity of the respondents’ illnesses in the preceding 6 months, hospitalizations during that period, and their overall satisfaction with life. The data analysis, which controlled for participants’ income, revealed that participants in the low-support group had significantly more health problems and hospitalizations and lower life satisfaction ratings than those in the other two groups. Brady concluded that the availability of social supports resulted in better physical and mental adjustment in the elderly.
a. Was there attrition in this study? Explain. (5 points)
b. Was selection a possible threat to the internal validity of this study? Explain. (5 points)
c. Could randomization have been used in this study? Explain. (5 points)
3. Here is a brief summary of the sampling plan of a proposed quantitative study. Read the summary and then respond to the questions that follow.
Patregnani studied the attitudes of recent nursing school graduates (registered nurses) toward evidence-based nursing practice. She was interested in exploring whether the nurses’ attitudes varied in relation to the type of employment or further training they had pursued. She obtained lists of graduates from three schools of nursing—one school in each of three different metropolitan areas (Boston, St. Louis, and Seattle). She then conducted structured telephone interviews with 50 graduates of each school. Her method was to find (using alumni information provided by the schools, local telephone directories, and Internet resources) the telephone numbers for as many names on her lists as she could and to make calls until she had completed 50 telephone interviews with graduates from each of the three schools. Thus, her final survey sample consisted of 150 recently graduated RNs.
a. Did Patregnani use probability or nonprobability sampling? Explain. (5 points)
b. What specific type of sampling was used? Explain. (5 points)
4. Read below the short excerpt from a report of longitudinal clinical project conducted with a sample of cancer patients undergoing active treatment and followed up for 3 months.
…We did not find statistically significant change over time between the intervention group and the attention control group…
a. What other information would you need to verify before reaching any conclusion about the efficacy of the intervention (referred above)? Please list all the potential factors that you think relevant in the critical appraisal of the above case, and briefly explain. (10 points)
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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