Report on the Earth’s Cryosphere and Drylands
Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References
Glaciers and Deserts (Physical Geology 111 Lab)
I. Introduction and Goals:
This laboratory practice is designed to teach you about the Earth’s cryosphere and drylands. Students should be able to define the cryosphere and explain how changes in it affect other aspects of the Earth system. Students should also be able to recognize common dryland processes, landforms, and risks.
II. Cryosphere Investigation
A. The cryosphere is made up of all of the world’s snow and ice. Answer the following questions using Figure 1.
1. In Figure 1, what is the sequence of Cryosphere zones you would experience on the ground if you traveled from Mexico to the North Pole (a beige to yellow-colored region with no snow or ice)?
2. Mountain glaciers and ice caps can be found in sections of Greenland, Canada, Russia, Alaska, and the western conterminous United States, as seen in Figure 1. Mountain glaciers can also be found near the equator (not shown in Figure 1). Is it conceivable for glaciers to exist at the equator, in your opinion?
3. How do you believe the cryosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere would be affected if the temperature of Earth’s atmosphere rose?
4. How do you believe the cryosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere would be affected if the Earth’s atmosphere’s temperature dropped?
B. What impact have glaciers had on landscapes? Answer the following question using Figure 2.
1. What are two human-made resources that were formed by glaciers?
2. How have the glaciers influenced the landscape in the above image, and what does this mean about how large these glaciers were in the past?
C. Fill out the Nisqually Glacier Data Chart below using Figure 3. To do so, measure the distance in kilometers from Nisqually River Bridge to the point of the glacier’s terminal (red dot) for each year of the chart using a ruler and the map’s bar scale. Make sure to record your distances to two decimal places (hundredths of km).
1. Complete the chart.
DATA CHART OF NISQUALLY GLACIER
DATA CHART OF NISQUALLY GLACIER
Year Kilometers from the Nisqually River Bridge to the Nisqually Glacier’s terminus
Year Kilometers from the Nisqually River Bridge to the Nisqually Glacier’s terminus
1946, the year
The year was 1941.
1936, 1976, 1976
The year was 1921.
In the year 1966, the year 1918,
The year was 1910, and it was 1963.
The year was 1905.
1896 and 1956
1892 in 1951
2. You’ll see that the glacier terminus withdrew up the valley at times, then advanced back down at others. Compile a list of these changes and their implications for temperature changes in this area.
D. Look at Figure 4, which exhibits NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center’s climatic data (NCDC). The global mean temperatures estimated by the NCDC are average temperatures for the whole planet based on data from thousands of observation sites across the world (from 1880 to 2009). Temperature data was adjusted to account for factors such as temperature rises around metropolitan centers and temperature drops with elevation. Despite the fact that the NCDC gathers and processes data on both land and sea, this graph only depicts the annual averaged global land surface temperature since 1880.
1. Explain how the averaged worldwide land surface temperature changed from 1880 to 2005 in this graph.
2. Compare and contrast the changes in the position of Nisqually Glacier’s terminal (II. C.) with annual averaged worldwide land surface temperature fluctuations. Please be as descriptive as possible.
3. Do you believe Nisqually Glacier can be used as a worldwide thermometer to measure climate change, based on your research? Explain.
Dryland Inquiry III
A. Most people associate drylands and deserts with scorching, sandy terrain. The Sonoran Desert of southern California and Arizona makes up the majority of the southwestern United States. The Sonoran Desert, on the other hand, is mostly made up of stony terrain. Sandy places, such as the Algodunes Dune Field in Figures 5 and 6, are present but limited. This is where the desert scenes of the planet Tatooine from the Star Wars film were shot.
Figure 6 shows the sand dunes of the Algodunes Dune Field. Why do you think the dunes are devoid of vegetation?
2. Winds can gust up to 60 miles per hour in the Algodunes Dune Field. This may result in hazardous situations and the requirement for canal and Interstate Route 8 maintenance. What kind of hazard would there be, and what kind of maintenance would be required on the canal and Interstate Route 8 as a result of the hazard?
3. The Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area is managed by the US Bureau of Land Management. Off-road vehicles are permitted to operate on a portion of the dunes. What effect do you believe off-road vehicles operating here would have on plant growth and the threats you mentioned?
The Mojave Desert is home to Death Valley. Examine Figures 7 and 8 for photos of the Death Valley region.
1. Death Valley is bordered on all sides by steep mountainous hills, as seen in Figure 7. On the slopes, you’ll also observe that there’s hardly no soil or flora. Describe what you believe the circumstances might be like in the river valleys on these mountain slopes if it rained heavily.
2. Look at Figures 7 and 8, where the rivers join the valley, and see the delta-like formations that occur at the river mouths. Describe how you believe these landforms formed.
3. Notice that Death Valley has no standing water, despite the fact that water pours into the valley from the mountains on occasion. It’s a basin with a lid (meaning that water has no way to drain from it). It is also North America’s hottest and driest location. When there’s water on the valley level, it’s alkaline to salty and drinkable (drinkable). What causes the water to become so alkaline and salty?
4. Assume you could study the white areas on the Death Valley floor depicted in Figures 7 and 8. Predict the types of materials (minerals) and environmental conditions you’ll find here.
5. Furnace Creek residents have lush lawns, trees, and drinkable water. Why do you believe their water is safe to drink?
6. According to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), many people live in drylands, which account for more than half of the world’s fertile land. The problem is to manage the land in such a way that it does not degrade into an unusable desert that cannot support agriculture while also allowing people to live comfortably. Make a list of the issues that people in drylands face, as well as some strategies for managing the land to make it safer and more productive.
Death Valley, Death Valley, Death Valley, Death Valley, Death Valley, Death Valley, Death Valley, Death Valley, Death California. The USGS 15-minute Furnace Creek, California quadrangle includes Death Valley (provided on the back of this activity sheet). It’s the big valley (graben) in the centre of the map, and it’s also the United States’ lowest valley (Figures 7 and 8). On each side of the valley, there are horsts (Figure 9).
1. The intermittent stream that drains from the upstream end of the alluvial fan/arroyo system A to the playa at E is shown in Figure 10. As you move downslope from the high arroyo to the playa (E), how would the grain size of the sediments along this stream change? Why?
2. Most grabens have a sloping floor due to fault movement being stronger on one side of the graben than the other. There are also half grabens, which are valleys formed by a single normal fault. Examine Figure 10 carefully for signs of flaws on one or both sides of Death Valley. Do you think Death Valley is a full-fledged graben or a half-grazed graben?
3. Despite the fact that the entire region is dryland, residents chose to develop a ranch on an alluvial fan C. What do you believe the single most essential reason was for those people to choose this alluvial fan C over one of the other fans for their ranch?
Laboratory Reflection on Glaciers and Drylands IV.
Write a reflection on the lab activity, describing the aim, methods utilized, and results gained, as well as a quick personal reflection on what you enjoyed and learnt from performing this experiment.
1) What was the goal of this experiment? During this lab, what did you discover and learn?
2) What part of this lab did you appreciate the most? Also, what did you find difficult or thought-provoking?
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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