Recognizing Folds and Faults Lab Report
Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References
Structural Geology Classifying and Recognizing Folds and Faults
I. INTRODUCTION & PURPOSE
Structural geology is the study of how geologic rock units are initially arranged and later deformed. Changing spatial relations between geologic units and the stress and strain that occur during deformation events are key aspects in understanding geologic structures. The purpose of this lab is to both learn and apply the concepts of structural geology to reading and interpreting geologic structures, including tilted beds, folds, and faults. The terms and concepts of geologic structures, the application of structural geology to mountain building events, and the techniques used to interpret geologic structures will be presented and discussed. The three types of graphic representations of geologic structures: 1) geologic maps, 2) geologic cross-sections, and 3) block diagrams will also be highlighted and discussed.
The purpose of this laboratory is to become successful at applying the principles of structural geology for both, interpreting surface and subsurface structural and geologic relations, stress and strain regimes, and solving structural problems, concerning geographic regions that expose a rock record of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary events, folding and faulting, and surface erosion.
II. MEASURING THE ATTITUDE OF ROCK UNITS
Attitude is the spatial orientation of planar rock structures. Two aspects of attitude are needed to constrain a rock unit or surface orientation in three- dimensional space: 1) Strike and 2) Dip. Strike is the compass bearing of a line formed by the intersection of a horizontal plane and the (inclined) plane of the layered rock feature. Strike can be expressed as either a quadrant or an azimuth bearing. Dip is the angle between the horizontal plane and the planar rock unit or feature. Dip direction is always down the inclined plane and is perpendicular to the strike. Strike and dip are drawn on geologic maps as a T-like symbol the long segment is the strike; the short segment the dip. A number nest to the short segment represents the dip angle. Geologists measure attitude with a compass (strike) and an inclinometer (dip).
A. Geologic Map Symbols
Geologic symbols are used on geology maps to indicate one or more characteristics of the rock formation at the point on the map that they (the symbols) are placed. Some commonly used map symbols are found in the information pages on Canvas (you will refer to these symbols for interpreting and making geologic maps, cross-sections, and block diagrams). Map symbols indicate 1) attitude (e.g. strike and dip of either, bedding or foliation), 2) formation contacts, 3) fault lines (rock type, location, and planar orientation), 4) fold axes (type, location, and their limb orientations), and 5) rock formation information (type, name, and age). You will need to be able to recognize and interpret these symbols while working on geologic maps and diagrams.
B. Major Types of Geologic Structures
Mapable rock units are called formations. Locations where rock formations are exposed at the earths surface are called outcrops. Undisturbed rock formations such as sedimentary beds and lava flows are typically horizontal and planar in spatial orientation. However, shifting tectonic plates produce a variety of stresses in the crust that will, over time, cause crustal deformation such as uplift, tilting, erosion, faulting, and folding of formations. Faults and folds exposed at the earths surface in outcrops have unique structural characteristics that can be recorded, mapped, identified, categorized, and analyzed. Carefully study the major structural features listed and described in the information pages on Canvas. You will get to analyze these structures in Part II. Three-dimensional visualization of folds and faults are found on the web link at http://reynolds.asu.edu/blocks/menulist.htm. At this web site, you to be able to interactively manipulate the fold and fault blocks.
C. Structure Vocabulary – Define these structural terms below
1. Outcrop –
2. Formation –
3. Strike –
4. Dip –
5. Contact –
6. Anticlines –
7. Synclines –
8. (Fold) Plunge –
9. Footwall –
10. Hanging wall –
11. Normal Fault –
12. Reverse Fault –
13. Thrust Fault –
14. Strike-Slip Fault –
15. Slickensides –
III. 3D GEOLOGIC BLOCK DIAGRAMS AND MAPS
Three-dimensional geologic block diagrams are scaled-down, abstract, simple representations, or models of Earth’s crustal rock structures, which include 1) formations, 2) unconformities, 3) faults, 4) folds, and 5) topography. Block diagrams are a 3-dimensional composite of both, a geologic map (horizontal map-view) and geologic cross-sections (vertical side-views). The key to successfully completing the block diagrams lies in visualizing the 2-D representations as 3-D structure.
STRIKE AND DIP BED AND BLOCK EXERCISES
1. Estimate and record the strike and dip for the formations here:
2. Estimate and record the strike and dip for the formations here:
3. The Block Diagram below has a 60° The dip direction must be determined from the age of the layers (1 oldest, 3 youngest). Estimate and record the strike and dip for the formations here:
IV. VISUALIZING HOW STRESSES DEFORM ROCKS
A. Stress in everyday objects and actions. Place checks in all the boxes that describe the stress involved in each object and action described below.
Object or Action Confining Pressure Directed Pressure Compression Tension Shear
1. A cardboard box collapses when you sit on it
2. An unopened bottle of soft drink (soda, pop).
3. You stretch out a rubber band by pulling its ends apart
4. You rub your hands together, and back and forth, to keep warm
B. Stress in the Geosphere. Think about how tectonic plates deform along convergent, divergent, and transform plate boundaries. Describe what type of stress (tension, compression, or shear) is shown by each image below.
1. The examples of deformation above are primarily caused by directed stresses that are pressing on rocks in the horizontal dimension. What kinds of stress can you think of that are pushing or pulling on rocks in the vertical dimension, and what kind of deformation do they cause or aid?
C. Name each type of structure shown in the block diagrams below. The surface maps and block diagrams are only partway finished. The formations are numbered from oldest to youngest (1 being oldest). Normally, you would draw in the rest of the map/block, but since were online, I wont require that because youd also need a scanner.
V. Real World Example
Nevada Fault Analysis: The orthoimages below was acquired about 7 km east of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Nevada Geological Survey has determined that faulting occurred here 11-6 Ma. Normally you would be required to draw the fault line on the map, but since were online, you only need to answer the questions below.
1. What kind(s) of fault(s) do you see on the map above. Use the mountain/land colors (white) as a guide.
2. Based on the type of fault you identified, what kind of stress was this Las Vegas region experiencing 11-6 million years ago (when the faults formed)?
3. And why did the faults form instead of folds?
VI. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY LABORATORY REFLECTION
Directions: Write a reflection of the lab activity, explaining its purpose, the methods used, the results obtained, and a brief personal reflection of what you enjoyed and learned about doing this lab
1. What was the purpose of this lab? What did you actually discover and learn during this lab?
2. What did you enjoy most about this lab? Also, what was challenging or thought-provoking?
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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