People Diagnosed with HIV/AIDS Case Essay
Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References
People Diagnosed with HIV/AIDS Case Essay
People Diagnosed with HIV/AIDS
HCA 430 Special Populations
Instructor: Steve Knowland
September 16, 2017
People Diagnosed with HIV/AIDS
Despite the fact that HIV/AIDS has spread to all American populations, African-American gay and bisexual men are the most affected. In the year 2009, this group comprised of 61% of all new infections that were recorded. Moreover, the statistics for 2008 indicate that this group accounts for 49% of the total American population of people living with HIV/AIDS. In recent years, HIV infections have been on the rise amongst the Latino population where a 2009 estimate indicated that Latino men were two and a half times more likely than Caucasian men to contract the ailment. Statistics from the Department of Human Health and Services shows that in 1999 to 2007, HIV-related death rates remained constant or people of ages 0-17 years. The death-rates for individuals of 18-44 years declined by nearly 50% while for those who are 45-65 years also remained stable (CDC, 2017).
Intersection of Social, Economic, and Political
The advent of HIV/AIDS bears significant economic implications due to its prevalence amongst individuals who are the peak of their income generating and productive years. Indeed, families feel the economic impact if a member is taken ill by an AIDS-related condition. This may mainly be attributed to the fact that parents are bound to experience drastic income cuts amid rising household expenditures. This problem is further compounded by the health disparities that are characteristic of U.S healthcare where the prevalence of the disease burden is synonymous with those who are less fortunate in the society (Rosenfeld, Bartlam & Smith, 2012). The distinct phenomenon of limited economic opportunities amongst the majority of the poor population which is occasioned with periods of homelessness. Such circumstances assist in propagating the proliferation of risky sexual practices such as exchanging money for drugs housing, money food, and safety which ultimately augments the risk of HIV.
In the contemporary healthcare framework, social-structural and individual level factors are regarded as the core influencers of HIV mortality. Indeed, the socioeconomic position of a person and the interactions with personal characteristics affect environmental constraints and resources such as stigma, social capital, minority stress, psychological influences including trauma and depression (Monteiro, Villela, & Soares, 2013). The manifestation of such negative qualities may affect the mental, as well as physical functioning as an individual who is infected, may find it cumbersome to maintain regular employment. Moreover, self-reported HIV-related work discrimination coupled with disease severity places people at the risk of job loss.
The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the 1980s prompted political intervention such that the government in collaboration with public health institutions sanctioned civic education in regards to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (De Waal, 2013). Such efforts were geared towards mitigating the mushrooming of HIV/AIDS patients in the U.S. Additionally; the government has invested in establishing antiretroviral pharmaceuticals and introducing subsidies to such drugs with the aim of prolonging the expected lifespan and ensuring a higher quality of life.
Proposed Community Program
In recent times, there has been the need to access technically accurate information that is related to HIV/AIDS. Moreover, there is important for caregivers to develop an up-to-date health information although the large proportion of my community lacks access to customized electronic information resources that could be instrumental to the HIV/AIDS community. The program, dubbed AIDS Community Outreach Program, is designed to develop a partnership with local non-governmental organizations to provide a funding mechanism to improve access to information amongst caregivers, the general public, health professionals and HIV/AIDs patients. Moreover, such an investment will create an avenue for promoting awareness and the use of technological applications that would provide an innovative way of promoting awareness and augmented information access. In essence, this program is aimed at harnessing and develop skills required to use HIV/AIDS-related information that may be found through databases over the Internet (Stangl et al., 2013). In addition to this accurate information and educational materials such as culturally appropriate and language-specific tools are also incorporated as a measure of addressing health disparity issues.
The concept of empowering consumers that is, people living with HIV/AIDS would serve as an innovative measure for creating a paradigm shift that endorses patient-centered care including enhancement of better communication between patients and healthcare providers. This may be attributed to the fact that access to HIV/AIDS information by patients notifies them on the availability of any clinical trials, legal advice, social supports, and availability of alternative treatment for HIV/AIDS (Jacquez, Vaughn, & Wagner, 2013). Hence, online access to information provides access to current and latest information spurs motivation for participation in the decision-making process that have direct outcomes to health behaviors.
Issues and Risk Factors
One of the prevalent issues within the community is the fact that majority of the families affected with HIV/AIDS are drawn from impoverished backgrounds hence they face the risk of being subjected to delayed treatment initiation as compared to patients who are from an affluent background. Moreover, the work responsibilities of an infected employee may also conflict with his healthcare need resulting in the prevalence of unemployment amongst this population where the unemployment rate is capped at between 45 to 65 percent (Parsons, Grov & Golub, 2012). In addition to this, people who possess advanced HIV infection and AIDS are candidates for disability benefits which technically limit their ability to earn additional income. Women who reside in poor households are likely to experience challenges before, during and after delivering a child which augments their risk of contracting HIV infections and the related complications. This occurrence may be attributed to lack of access to prenatal care including challenges of food security adherence to antiretroviral therapy and breastfeeding in the event an expectant mother is diagnosed with HIV.
Health Needs of Population
Some of the health needs that ought to be incorporated into the community involve the establishment of appropriate training for young adults to curb the possibilities of gaining incomplete information from unreliable sources. Additionally, preventive measures should be accorded ideally to vulnerable groups whereby protected relations such as the use of a condom are encouraged amongst sexually active youths.
The integration of public training and availability of counseling centers need to be facilitated whereby individuals have the liberty to consult on expert advice from qualified health workers in matters pertinent to HIV/AIDS.
CDC. (2017). HIV in the United States: At a Glance. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/statistics/overview/ataglance.html
De Waal, A. (2013). AIDS and power: why there is no political crisis–yet. Zed Books Ltd..
Jacquez, F., Vaughn, L. M., & Wagner, E. (2013). Youth as partners, participants or passive recipients: A review of children and adolescents in community‐based participatory research (CBPR). American Journal of Community Psychology, 51(1-2), 176-189.
Monteiro, S. S., Villela, W. V., & Soares, P. S. (2013). The interaction between axes of inequality in studies on discrimination, stigma and HIV/AIDS: contributions to the recent international literature. Global Public Health, 8(5), 519-533.
Parsons, J. T., Grov, C., & Golub, S. A. (2012). Sexual compulsivity, co-occurring psychosocial health problems, and HIV risk among gay and bisexual men: further evidence of a syndemic. American Journal of Public Health, 102(1), 156-162.
Rosenfeld, D., Bartlam, B., & Smith, R. D. (2012). Out of the closet and into the trenches: Gay male baby boomers, aging, and HIV/AIDS. The Gerontologist, 52(2), 255-264.
Stangl, A. L., Lloyd, J. K., Brady, L. M., Holland, C. E., & Baral, S. (2013). A systematic review of interventions to reduce HIV-related stigma and discrimination from 2002 to 2013: how far have we come? Journal of the International AIDS Society, 16 (3Suppl 2).
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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