Paper Comparison of Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in Pre-Industrial and Current Earth
Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References
Exploring past, current, and future climates with an online climate simulator called “Build your own Earth.”
Build Your Own Earth is a game that allows you to create your own world. The creators of Build Your Own Earth have provided some background information.
Build Your Own Earth (BYOE; http://www.buildyourownearth.com) was a vision we had to get children interested in learning about the factors that influence the Earth’s climate. The aim was for you to pick and choose the aspects you wanted to include in your planet: distance from the Sun, axis tilt, location of continents, oceans, and mountains, rotation rate, atmospheric composition, and so on. You would type these details into a web page and hit the “Go” button. In the background, a climate model would generate the climate on that world for you. Isn’t it exciting?
Unfortunately, due to the speed of today’s computers, such a vision is not now attainable. Our supercomputer can only run roughly 480 years of model climate in one day, even with a simplified climate model developed for speed (FOAM: the Fast OceanAtmosphere Model). Even with coarse grid spacing, 50300 years of simulations would be required to achieve a stable climate! Furthermore, with a large number of students submitting simulations in real time, our supercomputer would be overloaded. Instead, we pre-selected roughly 50 Earths, ran computer simulations, and plotted the simulation results for you to look at. Our Earths are divided into three categories: recent, ancient, and alien.
A Current Day (2015) simulation with 400 ppm of CO2 in the atmosphere (check today’s CO2 concentration here: https://www.co2.earth/ (Links to an external source.)) is included in recent Earths. A preindustrial control simulation and a 1975 simulation are also available. We also have one where there are no greenhouse gases in the atmosphere to demonstrate the relevance of greenhouse gases to Earth. We’ve also run simulations in which we adjusted carbon dioxide concentrations (even those from the future! ), the quantity of solar energy absorbed by the Earth, and the Earth’s orbital parameters (axial tilt and eccentricity).
Ancient Earths includes images from the Last Glacial Maximum (21,000 years ago), as well as the Miocene, Jurassic, Triassic, Carboniferous, Cambrian, and Ediacaran geologic periods. We used Colorado Plateau Geosystems’ paleogeography reconstructions as well as atmospheric composition reconstructions.
Alien Earths are modest climate model studies that try to extract the essence of the climate. What effect does the lack of continents have on Earth (Aquaplanet)? What would the circulation be like in a Snowball Earth episode (Iceplanet, which would be extremely similar to Hoth from Star Wars: Episode II)? What would happen if the equator was occupied by a single continent? Or are you going to be on the pole? What if the entire Earth was made up of land, with only a single ocean in the middle?
– Dr. Jonathan Fairman and Prof. David Schultz, Centre for Atmospheric Sciences eLearning Team members Stuart Anderson and Sharon Gardner
Your Task: All right, let’s give it a shot! Visit the webpage for Build Your Own Earth.
BuildYourOwnEarth.com (http://www.buildYourOwnEarth.com/index.html) is a website that allows you to create your own Earth. (This is a link to another website.)
There are two ways to learn how to utilize the website now:
Instead of choosing “Get Started,” go to “Take a Tour” on the top page.
If you’re still stumped, take a look at the following tutorials: http://www.buildyourownearth.com/tutorials.html (This is a link to another website.)
Part 1: The Fundamentals.
The Last Ice Age is being investigated.
Set Earth 1: Prehistoric. Last Glacial Maximum: 21 Ka. The most recent ice age was this one.
Earth 2: Recent is the second set. Today is the year 2015.
For both Earths, the climate attribute should be set to Atmosphere: Mean Temperature, Surface.
When you press play, you’ll see temperature fluctuations over the course of a year.
You can view the changes between your earth 1 and earth 2 by sliding the bar at the top. There should be a difference between the two.
Stop your simulation on a beautiful July day. When the last glacial maximum occurred, what was the average July temperature in Seattle?
Now we’ll go on to the present day. What is the current average July temperature in Seattle (the scale is in Celsius)? A temperature of 20 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit) corresponds to a temperature of 68 degrees Fahrenheit.
There are no greenhouse gases.
Earth 1: Recent is the first setting. There are no greenhouse gases.
Earth 2: Recent is the second set. Today is the year 2015.
The following climate properties remain in the atmosphere: Mean Temperature, Surface Temperature, and Relative Humidity.
What would happen to the Earth if greenhouse gases were not present? Why?
What area of the globe would not be frozen in the absence of greenhouse gases?
What are the non-anthropogenic (not generated by humans) sources of greenhouse gases?
Climate Change (Part 2)
Take a look at the bar graphs depicting the various gases in the atmosphere (“view properties” not the climate model). Set Preindustrial Control on Earth 1 (about 1700) and Recent, Current Day 2015 on Earth 2.
What is the difference in CO2 concentrations between pre-industrial and modern Earth? Why is there a distinction?
Agriculture is the primary source of N2O. How has N2O changed from pre-industrial times?
What are the differences in methane concentrations between pre-industrial and modern Earth? Why has there been a shift?
CFCs are arguably the most well-known chemical that depletes the ozone layer. They’re also greenhouse gases, it turns out. Why are there no CFCs on Earth before the Industrial Revolution?
Let’s take a look ahead. Set Earth 1 to Today, Set level=IPCC A1F1 CO2 Scenario and Earth 2 to Recent/CO2. This is a hypothetical future in which we continue to use fossil fuels and make certain technological advancements in energy, but we do not make a big move to alternate fuels until we are forced to. “Forced to” occurs about 2050, when global economy and emissions collide. Continue to focus solely on the qualities of gas.
What are the differences in CO2 concentrations between the two models? Because the global economy collapsed in the scenario, why do you think CO2 concentrations are still high in 2100?
What are the differences in methane concentrations between the two models?
Can you explain why methane levels have reduced while CO2 levels have increased?
This concludes the segment of the homework assignment. Parts 1 and 2 solutions should be uploaded to the Assignment dropbox.
Part 3: Create Your Own Experiment: This section of the assignment will be posted in this week’s DISCUSSION FORUM for you to share with your peers.
Using the Build Your Own Earth model, you will devise your own “experiment.” What exactly does that imply? You’ll pose a query, formulate a hypothesis, test your hypothesis with the simulation model, and then support or reject your hypothesis.
Your independent variables are in the top box on the left side under “Earth” in the Build Your Own Earth model. Time (from ancient scenarios to the future), CO2 concentrations, solar energy (e.g. flares), axial tilt, eccentricity of orbit (how round the orbit around the sun is), and land mass positions are only a few of the variables. Only one independent variable should be chosen.
The dependent or response variables are listed under “Climate Property” in the lower box on the left side. Mean surface temperatures have been the variable we’ve been looking at, but you could alter it to precipitation, clouds, winds, radiation, sea ice and snow, albedo, and temperatures at higher altitude. It’s worth noting that some items, such as plants, aren’t modeled. You should only include ONE dependent variable in your analysis.
All you have to do now is modify one independent variable between Earths 1 and 2 to see how it affects the dependent variable.
Make sure both earths are set to the same dependent variable. It will be easier to test your hypothesis if you make it more explicit!
Answer the following questions in your DISCUSSION POST:
What is the topic of your research?
What effect does modifying have on ?
So, what’s your theory?
When is compared to , we may tell that has increased or decreased. Because
What were your outcomes?
Do your findings back up your hypothesis? Is this shocking to you, and if so, why?
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