Lexical Aspects of Syntax World Literature Essay
Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References
Lexical Aspects of Syntax World Literature Essay
Subject: World Literature
Topic: Lexical aspects of syntax (Parts of Speech)
As you look at the words which form the parts of the sentences shown in the “Sentences” chapter of “DTV” (The Deluxe Transitive Vampire,” you may notice that each word performs a particular syntactic (grammatical) function within that sentence. We give these functions names. We call these names “parts of speech.” By “speech” here we mean “language.” We divide these parts of speech into two categories. One category is unlimited; that is, we can create more and more words, and we can’t possibly know all the words in those categories. We call this category “content” words. These are the words which give us the meaning (the semantics) of the sentence. The other category is limited; that is, there are not that many words in this category, and we can more or less know just about all of them, and it’s almost impossible to create new ones. We call this category “function” words.
The content category consists of 4 groups: verbs and nouns, which are the “heart” and “soul” of language, and the words which modify–or change, or add, in some way–the meaning of the verbs and nouns. “Adverbs” (easy to remember as “add” to a verb) modify verbs, and adjectives modify nouns. The function category consists also of 4 groups, much easier to know, and you already know 95% of them, if not more. These are the articles, prepositions, pronouns, and conjunctions. Articles are the little words which go in front of nouns, and help us understand whether we are referring to a definite noun (a noun which we can both identify), or an indefinite noun (any random thing).
Prepositions (think “pre” = before, and “position” equals a spatial or temporal relationship to a noun, which is the name for a person, place, or a thing, and that “thing” can also be abstract and uncountable) come before nouns (in a minute, before the rain, etc.). Pronouns replace the names of persons, places, or things, when we get tired of repeating them, or when there’s no need. (That’s what I think… “I” is a pronoun replacing “Leor”. “Leor” is the name of the person writing what you are reading. You can figure out who is writing to you, so there is no need for me to tell you my name. I can just use the pronoun “I” and we are on the same page. And conjunctions (such as the “And” which begins this sentence!) connect things to one another… We also have interjections, words we just throw into the middle of a conversation, when we want to express something emotional.
Hey! You know what I mean, right? (Hey! is an interjection, which literally means “between” = inter and “throw” = ject). Sometimes a word which looks the same and sounds the same can function as different parts of speech, depending on its role within a sentence. In order to figure out which part of speech it is, you need to do what we can call both a (1) morphological test (i.e., what does the word look like), and (2) a syntactical test (i.e., how does it behave, what is its function, what is it doing in that sentence… You can figure out on your own what the function of a word in a sentence is, and so you can label it. But it’s not always that easy to figure out on your own. Being able to look in a dictionary and check the different possible functions a particular word can have, can be quite helpful. I would like you to get into the habit of consulting dictionaries not only when you need to find the meaning or the spelling of a word, but also when you need to learn (1) the syntactic function–the part of speech–of a word, in a particular sentence, and (2) the linguistic register–which is the social usage style–of a word.
Dictionaries have different codes to give you this information. The part of speech is listed with a separate entry, and a superscript (a number written slightly above the word, to its right). The register (i.e., style) level is usually written in italics, sometimes abbreviated (fml = formal, “infml = informal, “lit” = literary, etc.). It is very important for you to learn about all the linguistic information a dictionary contains. I love the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, and I have given you the websites. You can use these for free for 30 days, and afterwards you can purchase access for not very much money (maybe $10). You can find used paper versions of these, very inexpensively, only. So, your next assignment is to label 5 sentences, labeling each word with its part of speech as used in that sentence.
Use a dictionary to help you, but be careful that you verify the options provided by the dictionary with the way the word is used in your sentence. Please post your sentences with the labeled parts of speech here. You can just put the part of speech in parentheses after each word, or find any way you like to show that, so long as it’s clear. By the way, you can use DTV as a guide and as a universe for exploration of the ways of expressing all sorts of thoughts which come out of your imagination. You can also use it as a “map” to develop a more analytical understanding of the way sentences work in whatever you read. And this is indeed how we will be using this book. The book is organized in 3 sections, although they aren’t labelled. The first section is the “Sentences” section (page 3-7).
Then, in the “Words” chapter (pages 8-29), you get a deeper review of all of the parts of speech which I have described briefly above, in my own words. The next chapters, pages 30-98 (Nouns, Verbs, Verbal, Adjectives and Adverbs, and Pronouns”) go into even more details, and subgroups, of these parts of speech. As you can see, there are no chapters on articles, prepositions, conjunctions, or interjections. Perhaps these aren’t that interesting or varied (although interjections certainly could be), or perhaps they would draw attention away from the most productive and rich parts of language. The final part–pages 99-166– looks at some nuances and subsections of sentences (Agreements, Phrases, Clauses, and Fragments, Splices, and Run-ons). I hope you will appreciate how fun and productive grammar can be, when we approach it as a game with a few rules and lots of opportunities. Learn the few rules, and play! That is the path to becoming a great writer!
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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