Lab Report on Metamorphic and Sedimentary Rock Properties
Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References
Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic rocks are formed when pressure and temperature increase, causing pre-existing rocks to change.
Minerals form as pressure and temperature rise.
Less hydrous minerals replace water-bearing elements that really are viable at lower temperatures.
The Protoliths of Metamorphic Rocks
The minerals that made up the initial rock (protolith) undergo chemical reactions during metamorphism. The chemical elements of the rock are rearranged when the old elements are devoured by any of these metamorphic reactions, and new mineral complexes are produced. The chemical makeup of the rock, on the other hand, remains constant: a rock with plentiful iron prior to metamorphism will be composed of iron-bearing minerals after metamorphism, and a silica-rich protolith will result in a silica-rich metamorphic rock.
Metamorphism alters the texture of the rock as well as the minerals that are there. The following are some of the most common changes that occur when a rock is metamorphosed:
1) Porosity reduction
2) Mineral grain enlargement
3) foliation development (planar alignment of minerals)
4) Important features like bedding and fossils are lost.
Minerals are aligned in foliated metamorphic rocks, which commonly form light and dark colored bands and have a flaky appearance.
Slate=extremely fine-grained, low-temperature, low-pressure circumstances; parent rock=shale
Phyllite=mica-rich, well-developed foliation, low-medium temperature and pressure; parent rock=slate
Schist=shale, slate, phyllite, rhyolite, granite, basalt; parent rock=shale, slate, phyllite, rhyolite, granite, basalt; parent rock=shale, slate, phyllite, rhyolite, granite, basalt; parent rock=shale, slate, phyllite, rhyolite, granite, bas
Gneiss = layered/banded light and dark colored minerals, high temperature and pressure; source rock = schist
Minerals are not aligned in non-foliated metamorphic rocks; they may appear fused together and have a syrupy feel.
Amphibolite is a coarse-grained, dark-colored rock formed by high temperature and pressure; the parent rock is basalt or gabbro.
Quartzite is a metamorphosed sandstone in which individual quartz grains fuse together and the porosity is reduced; the parent rock is sandstone.
Marble=metamorphosed limestone, with organic impurities in the parent rock=limestone causing banding/streaking.
As a rock is buried and heated, it undergoes constant metamorphism. Low grade, medium grade, and high grade relate to the degree of metamorphism associated with heating to comparatively low temperatures (350°C), moderate temperatures (500°C), and high temperatures (>600°C), respectively. Minerals get larger and foliations become more apparent when rocks go from low to high grade metamorphism. Furthermore, the minerals that make up the rock become less and less hydrous. The stable minerals in metamorphic rocks typically advance from clays through micas, amphiboles, and pyroxenes, in that order, from lowest to highest grade.
Metamorphic Rock Formation Processes:
The most common type of regional metamorphism is large-scale, directed stress.
a. Continental collisions and subduction zones
2. Metamorphism of Contact=high temperature, low pressure
a. A change to the exterior of a pluton
3. Burial/Regressional Metamorphism is caused by the burial and removal of underlying rock units, which releases temperature and pressure.
4. Fault Metamorphism occurs when mineral grains rotate due to movement along fault lines.
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