Instructional Strategies for Differentiated Teaching and Learning
Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References
Instructional Strategies for Differentiated Teaching and Learning
Running Head: TPACK Edwards 1
TPACK Edwards 14
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)
March 11, 2017
EDU 673: Instructional Strategies for Differentiated Teaching and Learning
Instructor: Dr. Adragna
Edwards Lesson Plan
- Title: Mr. Edwards Reflection on Lesson Plan Implementation on the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird
- Technologies: I-pad App (e-book), Scootpad.com, and Starfall.com
- Teacher: Mr. Markis’ Edwards
- Grade/Content Area: 7th Grade English
- Lesson Objective/Overview:
- The students will be able to effectively read, write, and speak in English based activities and strategies completed on the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird with 90% accuracy. Students will be presented with a Prezi in the novel, on each slide, there will be grammatical areas, such as spelling and expected to determine all the errors, with at least 90% accuracy. The lesson plan will take approximately a week and a half with each class being nearly eighty minutes.
- Computers with Internet access
- I-pads with downloaded e-book
- Copies of “To Kill a Mockingbird” book
- Cube Ball
- Study guides on “To Kill a Mockingbird”
- APA citation generators
- Common Core State Standards (CCSS):
Mississippi Standards of Learning:
- Title of Novel: To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee
- Mississippi Standards of Learning
- Each of these objectives will be given to students to allow them to have an understanding of the common core state standards (CCSS). Students will be able to see how English communication skills are necessary for more than just classroom use, but everyday use. There are certain key concepts, big ideas, and major understandings my students will master in doing the objective above. From these standards, teachers will develop the big ideas or the major understandings that students should have at the end of the unit or lesson, along with essential questions (Wiggins & McTighe, 2012). Essential questions help students make sense of the concepts and stimulate thinking of the big ideas. They are not factual questions; rather they are concepts in the form of a question, organizers that set the focus (Puckett, 2013). Puckett continues in stating both big ideas and essential questions go beyond the confines of a single skill or even a single content area, making them compatible with the Common Core State Standards’ emphasis on broadly applicable skills and understandings. While these goals and big ideas are the same for all learners, differentiation by content occurs in how teachers approach these ideas based on individual learners’ prior knowledge (Puckett, 2013). The Standards define what all students are expected to know and be able to do, not how teachers should teach (CCSS for English). Common State Standards Initiative plays a key role in designing effective instruction. These standards are set by each state and all instructors in any state must follow the common standards set in that area. The instructors know these standards as objectives. An instructor will have a greater chance of being successful if they follow state standards and plan their learning objectives based on that area standards.
Day 1: Objective
Students Will Be Able to (SWBAT):
- At the conclusion of this lesson, students will list the errors in the Sponge activity with 90% accuracy. The self-regulation strategies that are built in these strategies is identifying and assessing. This is reinforced and aid instruction by having the students participate in a fun activity at the end of that day based on the how they meet their learner needs in the first portion of the sponge activity.
Day 2: Objective
- At the conclusion of this lesson, students will critique the novel by completing a cubing activity with 90% accuracy. The self-regulation strategies that are built in these strategies is utilizing a 21st-century physical cubing/cube ball. This is reinforced by having the students analyze the novel in a fun and motivational way. This is a universal design because it helps all my students become exceptional expert learners’ through class participation.
Day 3: Objective
- At the conclusion of this lesson, students will assess by scaffolding study guide with 90% accuracy. This lesson will be assessed on a study guide where students are expected to complete for 90% accuracy to receive bonus points on future assignments or test.
- NETS–T Standard:
The NETS-T standard being met is allowing the instructor and students to “facilitate and inspire student learning creativity” (Standards-T) The instructor is able to “promote, support, and model creative and innovative thinking and inventiveness” and successfully “communicate relevant information and ideas effectively to students, parents, and peers using a variety of digital-age media and formats” through the NETS-T standard (Standards-T).
Content Summary: The students will be able to effectively read, write, and speak in English based activities and strategies completed on the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird with 90% accuracy. In a unit goal, one is able to measure mastery, provide specific outcomes, measure progress, and provide proficiency level. This is, in fact, my goal. The mastery can be measured by collecting and organizing appropriate data on the novel, applying principles of evidence-based on reading the book, focusing on student learning behaviors in relation to speaking about the novel through a Prezi/PowerPoint presentation, appropriate assessment methods, and evaluating/predicting the criteria for success. Students will be able to demonstrate mastery by creating a Prezi/PowerPoint as stated above. The students will also be able to demonstrate mastery by completing a cubing activity and being able to assess a scaffolding study guide based on the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird.
Summative Assessment: In the summative assessment, I will elaborate on how I will measure my students’ level of unit mastery through engagement and motivation. I will effectively arrange, define, describe and attempt to utilize scaffolding and different learning styles with each of my students. I currently work with students with intellectual disabilities and we keep students motivated by giving them verbal praise. After trying this with more than 20 different students, with 20 different disabilities, I realize this is a great strategy. I would tell the children, “thank you” for doing what I asked of them or “good job” for making a good grade.
- Go to scootpad.com and starfall.com three times this week to help strengthen all areas of reading. The students will need to have access to a computer and the internet at home to complete this assignment. The students will complete any reading activity and bring in the results from three different online readings by the end of the week.
- Students will work with a partner to write a summary of the novel, have a peer proof-read it and check for errors, and lastly read their summary aloud to the class.
- Content/Content Summary/Pedagogy:
The students will be able to effectively read, write, and speak in English based activities and strategies completed on the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird with 90% accuracy. In a unit goal, one is able to measure mastery, provide specific outcomes, measure progress, and provide proficiency level. This is, in fact, my goal. The mastery can be measured by collecting and organizing appropriate data on the novel, applying principles of evidence-based on reading the book, focusing on student learning behaviors in relation to speaking about the novel through a Prezi/PowerPoint presentation, appropriate assessment methods, and evaluating/predicting the criteria for success. Students will be able to demonstrate mastery by creating a Prezi/PowerPoint as stated above. The students will utilize scaffolding reading, cubing activity, and the sponge activity as teaching strategies that best address the lesson’s content and concept. In the sponge activity, it is being used to soak up minutes that are considered relaxed moments. The activities would include Charades, where the students would spell out words or act out vocabulary terms under the UDL guidelines. Scaffolding reading will be used to provide temporary support until help is no longer needed. Can take many forms (examples, explanations, organizers, etc.) but needs to build on student’ existing knowledge (Puckett, 2013). The cubing activity has six parts included: describing, comparing, associating, analyzing, applying, and arguing (Puckett, 2013). In this activity, students will be placed in groups and each group will be given a cube differing from another group. Each student is expected to compare, describe, and analyze the cube within their group and then present to the class, showing they are an expert learner under the UDL guidelines. The students will apply this six-part technique by standing up as a group and showing their entire group thoroughly understands the novel by explaining the novel using these techniques. The Common Core Standards focuses on content skills, such as, writing, reading, and speaking. In English language arts, 6-12th grade standards “offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain…exposure to…texts and task” (CCSS for English). I used the standards to drive differentiated instruction in my classroom. The lesson uses multiple intelligences to promote critical thinking and problem-solving in a positive learning environment. This is done after the professor builds rapport with the student beginning on day 1, such as, through activities listed above. The students will be able to demonstrate mastery by completing a cubing and sponge activity and being able to assess a scaffolding study guide based on the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird.
- What words are spelled incorrectly on the Prezi?
- What punctuations do not belong or are missing in the presentation?
- Who has read the entire novel without struggling?
- Who have problems with writing in English?
- Who struggles with reading certain words/the novel?
- Who struggles with speaking correct English?
The discussion will be used to analyze the novel on each student being able to effectively read, write, and speaking English. The discussion will involve each of the students pairing up and working on the different activities listed above, scaffolding reading, cubing, and sponge activity. Next, each student will select either themselves or their partner to read aloud all the grammatical errors in the Prezi presented by the instructor. The partner that did not read aloud will in return have to read a paragraph of the instructor choosing, this is done to assess and aid the student in being able to scaffold read aloud. After reading aloud, the students will begin the sponge activity, as a fun and learning activity. Next, the students will all split into a big group of two, whereas, half of the class are ones and the other twos. The students will then complete the sponge activity using charades and the words must all come from the novel glossary. The students will all have fifteen minutes to go and pick three words a piece to utilize in their turn, where they can only use one word. Further requirements and rubric will be given to the students, so the students will know what is expected of them before beginning the activity. The students will also see the instructors on doing getting into a group of four for the cubing activity. Then once this is done, the students will be given the opportunity compare the novel, analyze it, and describe it all to their peers vocally in front of class to ensure they fully understand it. The students will be given the homework assignment, along with instructions on becoming a better reader, writer, and speaking by utilizing scootpad.com and starfall.com. I will allow the students to read this information independently and complete the assignment at home to allow them to understand the information on their own. The reflection at the end of the lesson gives me knowledge as to where each student stands while allowing them to work effectively along with independence.
- Content & Pedagogy:
Several of the students I am teaching scored low on several standardized tests before my arrival and I plan to change this through my teachings and lesson plan. It has been suggested that low achievement on standardized tests may be attributed to many factors, including teaching methods (Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E., 2012). Differentiated instruction has been identified as a teaching method using different learning modalities that appeal to varied student interests with individualized instruction (Mastropieri et al., 2012). Mastropieri et al’s. (2012) continues by stating the study was guided by a framework of constructivism, multiple intelligence theory, and learning styles theory. These are all factors that play a vital role as to why students perform the way they do. Mastropieri et al., (2012) results demonstrated that students receiving differentiated instruction had a significantly higher performance…in scores…and contributes to social change by demonstrating to educators that instructional strategies adapted to different learning styles can enhance…achievement of middle-grade students. Being that the students scored low on their test, I will implement a summative assessment based on my differentiated classroom. As stated before, I will have my students complete scaffolding reading, the sponge activity, and the cubing activity to have my students express themselves in a fun and positive way.
For my technology, I am going to be using a cube ball, I-pad with a downloaded e-book, study guide, computer in conjunction with Prezi and websites like scootpad.com, starfall.com, and the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird. The students will identify any errors and spelling grammar off the instructor computer using Prezi. So students will analyze their data based on the projector and laptop presenting the Prezi in the front of class through the sponge activity. It may be useful for teachers to be prepared with extra activities to “soak up” this extra time, in a way similar to that in which a sponge soaks up extra water. Some ideas include doing homework or extensive reading, helping other individuals or groups who have not yet finished, comparing answers with others who have finished, and doing an enrichment activity such as creating similar tasks as is done in Question-and-Answer Pairs (Jacobs, 2004). Then I will utilize this cube ball to identify different parts of the novel. This will be done by having the students complete a blank worksheet answering the cube ball questions in complete sentences to have the students work on their writing skills. Then I will utilize blank study guides that my students will independently fill out to determine what all they have learned about the novel. Students may take their study guide home and complete it for homework. The self-regulation strategies that are built in these strategies are scaffolding to provide the support needed for students to succeed in challenging work. Students will have help on the “use of study guides” and through the “use of manipulatives” (Puckett, 2013). Scaffolding will be used to aid instruction for students that are struggling in different areas. Once a student no longer needs scaffolding, they are then considered an expert learner under the UDL guidelines. These needs will be reinforced through me motivating my students to partake in receiving an additional 10 bonus points on any future assignment or test and depending on the students’ level of need, additional one-on-one assistance will be available. The instructor is able to use NETS-T standard to “facilitate and inspire student learning and creativity” and to “communicate relevant information and ideas effectively to students, parents, and peers using a variety of digital-age media and formats through these different technologies.” The instructor is also able to utilize the CCSS so the students will be able to see how English communication skills are necessary for more than just classroom use, but everyday use. From these standards, teachers will develop the big ideas or the major understandings that students should have at the end of the unit or lesson, along with essential questions (Wiggins & McTighe, 2012). The different technology used in the classroom will make the students feel like they are having fun while learning new information. The students will gain new knowledge while partaking in fun activities.
- Technology & Pedagogy:
The technology fits my pedagogy by allowing students to work be able to see how English communication skills are necessary for everyday use, rather than just class as stated before. The students will be able to read, write, and speak on their study at home while also using the Prezi document as a go-to tool while at home. The students will also be able to access their I-pad or computer to look up certain words for understanding. The students will be using the different technologies to able to successfully comprehend the novel and English in general. The students will learn how to do a creative Prezi rather than an old-fashioned power-point. The students will also be completing different website activities, such as scootpad.com and starfall.com to gain more understanding of reading, writing, and speaking in English. These different activities will help strengthen the students English communication in all areas. This allows the 7th-grade students to learn how to work independently, as a skill that will be useful in the future.
- Technology & Content:
The technology used in this lesson will enhance student learning and classroom organization with the assistance of NETS standards. The technology helps me meet my standards by encouraging my students to be creative through different activities, such as scaffolding reading and the cubing and sponge activity. The students are also able to view a Prezi presentation and learn to create one of their own, ultimately enhancing their learning experience and the classroom organization. The students will be able to take home a study guide and do a hands-on self-assessment of the novel. The students will do a peer-editing of their classmates’ study guide on the next class meet to see how each student answered each question while looking for grammatical errors. The different technologies align with the lesson by “promoting, supporting, and modeling creative and innovative thinking and inventiveness” through its use (Standards-T). This will show the students that they may overcome different trials, independently think, and try different technologies to get one result.
I want my students to be able to think more independently and use different technologies to get a common result. Students will be able to list errors using the Sponge activity. The students will also be able to critique a novel by completing a cubing activity. Then I want my students to be able to successfully utilize scaffolding reading and answer questions utilizing a study on the novel. The different strategies and activities will let me know if my students are capable of working through a process with specific tools, resources, and models. I will know my students have succeeded once I grade their study guide. Technology is a tool the students will be able to use in everyday life and I will elaborate this to my students. This will be an experience that will teach the students how independently think through various activities and strategies.
In conclusion, as educators, we must be able to look into school and decide what is needed for differentiation to be successful in the classroom. I was successfully able to create the framework for a TPACK lesson plan through the use of CCSS, NETS-T Standard, summative assessment, pedagogical content knowledge, technological content knowledge, and technological pedagogical knowledge. I am now officially ready to begin teaching a differentiated 7th grade English class.
Common Core State Standards Initiative. (2010a). Common Core State Standards for English
Language arts & literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects.
Jacobs, G. (2004). Cooperative learning: theory, principles and techniques. JF New Paradigm
Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (2012). The inclusive classroom: Strategies for effective
differentiated instruction. Pearson Higher Ed.
Puckett, K (2013). Differentiating Instruction: A Practical Guide. Bridgepoint Education:
Standards•T 2008 International Society for Technology in Education.
Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (2012). Understanding by design guide to advanced concepts in
creating and reviewing units. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision & Curriculum
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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