Essay about Philosophy from 2010
Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References
Essay about Philosophy from 2010
Wednesday, May 26th is the deadline. Your response should be written in the form of an essay (introduction, main body paragraphs, and conclusion) and should be about 12 to 2 pages long, double-spaced, and typed in 12-point font. Use citations in the text* You should only use our course readings and videos as references! Use the Blackboard Turnitin link to submit your file. To answer, choose ONE of the three prompts. An example of in-text citation can be found in question option 2.
Other Information: You’re attempting to provide your finest explanations, as well as refined viewpoints supported by reasoned reasons. This will necessitate some critical consideration on your behalf. It also necessitates the capacity to spot flaws in your argument and account for counter-arguments. Explain the course topic as best you can, using your own arguments.
Do not use any sources other than the course materials. The articles that you should explain in your answer to the question can be found in the Norton Introduction. As needed, you should cite, paraphrase, and summarize them to support your own thoughts on the subject. Make sure to give these authors credit for their thoughts and words.
Reminder for Assignment Submission:
Upload your essay to the Blackboard website’s digital dropbox. Your writing is entered into the turnitin.com database via the dropbox. Turnitin.com detects plagiarism and provides grammar and spelling corrections. After you submit, you’ll be able to see your “non-originality” score a few hours later. Because you should be citing excerpts from your textbook as support, your essay should have a score better than 0%. Plagiarism/academic dishonesty is defined as any quotations, summaries, or paraphrases of other writers’ ideas that are not properly ascribed. If you find a flaw in your assignment, you can fix it and resubmit it before the deadline.
A score of more than 0% does not always imply plagiarism. There is probably no problem if your percentage is in the blue or green zone. There is most likely an issue if your percentage is in the yellow area. There is clearly a problem if your percentage is in the orange or red zone.
To cite your sources, use the in-text citation approach (also known as parenthetical citation). There is no need for a cover page or a works referenced page. Refer to MLA, APA, or whichever academic style handbook you use for other issues of style.
When using sources, ask yourself these three questions:
1) Is this a legal source?
2) Am I disclosing the source so that my readers are aware that I am using words and/or ideas that are not mine?
3) Have I provided a sufficient citation for a reader to check up the source on her own?
Choose ONE of the following three topics:
1. Aquinas on God’s Uniqueness
The arguments of Aquinas are intended to prove the existence of a being that is fundamentally different from ordinary objects in a number of ways. The First Way begins with the observation that ordinary objects are moved and strives to demonstrate that at least one thing is not caused, and so on. In each example, Aquinas argues as if his reasoning proves something more powerful, namely, that the outstanding characteristic in question is possessed by only one entity. He doesn’t back up his assertion with evidence.
Exercise: In two parts, explain Aquinas’ reasoning. Create an argument supporting the conclusion that at least one entity possesses the extraordinary quality (an uncaused phenomenon) in question. Second, show that there can only be one such being to finish the argument.
2. The Animal Suffering Issue
While most treatments of the problem of evil center on human suffering, Antony follows William Rowe in addressing animal suffering as well. Rowe’s example is as follows:
Assume that lightning strikes a dead tree in a distant forest, causing a forest fire. A fawn [young deer] is trapped in the fire, terribly burned, and suffers in excruciating anguish for several days before death relieves its pain. As far as we can tell, the fawn’s pain is in vain. (American Philosophical Quarterly 16 : 338) Rowe, The Problem of Evil and Some Varieties of Atheism, American Philosophical Quarterly 16 : 338)
The advantage of Rowe’s example is that it prevents most of the typical reactions to the problem. Animal suffering cannot be justified on the basis that it is the result of the exercise of free choice or that it serves to bring animals closer to God, because animals do not have free will and are incapable of union with God, according to most theological traditions.
Construct a rejoinder on behalf of the theist to the argument from animal suffering. Any such response must provide a plausible and morally sufficient rationale for God to permit animal suffering.
3. The Defense of Free Will
God allows pain because of free will, according to the free will defense.
9a) It is beneficial for humans to have free will, and
9b) God cannot prohibit us from making terrible decisions and injuring others if we have free will.
This, as Louise Antony points out, does not explain why God allows natural processes to create misery. However, one can wonder if the free will defense succeeds even in the restricted task of explaining why God allows human choices to cause pain.
Assume Jones is going to attack Smith, and you intervene at the last possible moment to bring Smith to safety. Jones’ scheme has been thwarted by you. But have you infringed on his right to choose? No. Jones made his decision on his own accord, and you had no say in it. You merely shielded Smith from the negative consequences of Jones’s free will.
Why doesn’t God follow suit? He could still protect the innocent from the terrible decisions of others without restricting anyone’s ability for free will (for example, by putting an invisible shield around us that would prevent others from harming us without good reason). If she had the ability, a decent mom would undoubtedly safeguard her child in this way. God, on the other hand, does not act in this manner. Isn’t that overwhelming evidence that there is no such thing as a good God?
Consider what it would be like to live in a world were we were safeguarded in this way from human evil. Is it possible that such a world would be worse in any way? Does this mean that the free will defense fails on its own terms if it doesn’t?
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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