Earthquake Geology Lab Report
Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References
Part 2: SEISMICITY IN THE WORLD
To keep track on the most recent seismic activity, go to http://ds.iris.edu/seismon/.
Select the 30-day tab. There will be a table. Answer the following questions using that table and the map. Simply click on the arrows on the table’s header line to sort the data.
1. Recent earthquake distribution and magnitude
1. Where did the five largest earthquakes in terms of magnitude happen in the last month? Do they have anything to do with plate boundaries? What kind are you? By comparing the maps of each earthquake and clicking on the LOCATION tab, you can find out. A map of the area will emerge, showing the distribution of the area’s strongest earthquakes. Make sure the “display plate boundaries” tab on the right side menu is turned on.
Fill in the table below by ranking the earthquakes from most powerful to least powerful.
LOCATION DATE MAGNIFICATION DEEPNESS (km)
Tectonic setting/plate boundary type Rank
2. Visit http://earthalabama.com/energy.htm to learn more about the energy connected with the greatest earthquake in this series. Enter the magnitude and then select “calculate” from the drop-down menu.
What is the energy carried by seismic waves in Joules?
Take a look at the “estimated seismic energy” table. How long might an earthquake power the United States if its energy could be harnessed? How long could that power the average American household?
Part 3: Case Studies on Earthquake Intensity and Secondary Earthquake Hazards
The most obvious hazard associated with an earthquake is ground shaking; however, earthquakes also pose a number of other risks that can have far-reaching and destructive repercussions on the natural environment and human interests. Secondary seismic hazards are as follows:
Landslides and liquefaction of soil
Infrastructure and structure damage; buildings may collapse, trapping people inside and covering streets in rubble. Damaged roads, railroads, and bridges can cut off or disrupt entire populations, making rescue attempts more difficult.
Fires and the loss of lifelines as a result of utility line damage
Tsunamis, which are the most dangerous to coastal towns.
Ground deformation that is permanent
There will be a loss of life and cultural upheaval. They have the potential to wreak havoc on the economy and society structures.
The scale of these secondary risks is determined by the magnitude and duration of the earthquake, as well as local geological conditions, construction types, and society readiness.
For case studies of historical earthquakes, you will assess the disparities between measurements of intensity and magnitude, as well as their relevance to secondary seismic hazards.
Read each case study’s materials and respond to the questions. Click on the links to visit the main source of information for a more in-depth analysis. Estimate the severity of the earthquake’s main shake using the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale on the next page, based on the description.
Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale
CASE STUDY 1: New Madrid Fault, Richter Magnitude: 8.0, on December 16, 1811.
The ground lifted and dropped at the start of the earthquake, bending the trees until their branches tangled and opening large fractures in the ground, according to historical documents from eyewitnesses. Landslides raced down the steeper cliffs and hillsides; enormous amounts of land were raised; while yet bigger areas sank and were flooded. Huge waves on the Mississippi River sank numerous boats and washed others high up on the cliffs. High banks crumbled down and collapsed into the river, sand bars and island points gave way, and entire islands vanished. The river appeared to be rushing upstream due to local ground uplifts and water waves traveling upstream. Water ponds were also noticeably agitated. Surface rupturing, on the other hand, did not occur. Raised or sunken lands, fissures, sinks, sand blows, and massive landslides defined the region most severely damaged, which spanned 78,000129,000 square kilometers and stretched from Cairo, Illinois, to Memphis, Tennessee, and from Crowley’s Ridge to Chickasaw Bluffs, Tennessee.
Although the motion at New Madrid, Missouri was powerful during the first shock, it was not as severe or destructive as the motion caused by two aftershocks about 6 hours later. Only one person was killed by falling structures in New Madrid, but chimneys and log cabins were thrown down as far as Cincinnati, Ohio; St. Louis, Missouri; and several locations throughout Kentucky, Missouri, and Tennessee. The Mississippi River valley was upwarped in many topography bulges in Lake County uplift. Other locations had up to a 5 m drop in elevation, though 1.52.5 m was more frequent in Arkansas.
https://www.usgs.gov/natural-hazards/earthquake-hazards/science/1811-1812-new-madrid-missouri-earthquakes?qt-science center objects=0#qt-science center objects
3. You can determine the intensity by reading the material above and comparing the testimonials to the Mercalli Scale degree. For your estimate, use the most severe level of damage. What was the New Madrid Earthquake’s magnitude? Give your answer and a list of the evidence you used to support it.
4. Which of the elements you mentioned in your response is associated with a secondary hazard?
CASE STUDY 2: San Francisco, April 18, 1906. Richter’s prediction 7.8 magnitude
The earthquake caused damage to buildings and structures throughout the city and county of San Francisco, however most of the damage was minor in scope and severity. The majority of chimneys collapsed or were severely damaged. The business district was constructed on land that had been filled in over the Yerba Buena cove. Pavements collapsed, arched, and fissured; brick and frame dwellings were severely damaged or destroyed; sewer and water mains were ruptured; and streetcar lines were distorted into wavelike shapes.
Buildings were demolished and trees were uprooted on or near the San Andreas fault. The ground’s surface was ripped and thrown into furrow-like ridges. Roads that crossed the fault line were inaccessible, and pipelines were ruptured, cutting off the city’s water supply. Because there was no water to put out the fires that started shortly after the earthquake, they swiftly spread across the city. They obliterated a significant portion of San Francisco.
The displacement of fences and roadways indicated a ground movement of 34.5 meters. A fence and a row of trees were shifted nearly 5 meters in Mendocino County. In Sonoma County, vertical dis-placement of up to 0.9 m has been seen. At the fault’s southern terminus, no vertical displacement was noted. http://www.sfmuseum.org/1906/ew.html
5. What was the magnitude of the 1906 earthquake in San Francisco? Make a list of the evidence you used to support your answer.
6. Which of the items in your response above is associated with a secondary hazard?
7. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using the Modified Mercalli Scale to analyze historical earthquakes?
8. Look at the Seismic Hazard map for the two zones, which is expressed as a percentage of ground acceleration. Visit https://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3325/pdf/SIM3325 sheet1.pdf to see the map.
Is the level of risk comparable? Why is the size of the hazard area so different?
Part 4: GROUND RESONANCE AND BUILDING DESIGN
The tendency of a system to vibrate with higher amplitude at some frequencies than others is known as resonance. The frequency at which a system’s maximum-amplitude oscillation occurs is known as its resonant frequency. The number of seconds it takes for a building to naturally vibrate back and forth is known as its natural resonance. The longer the building’s resonance period, the taller it is. You will learn about building resonance and technical methods to limit the harm caused by vibrations in this segment of the exercise. Watch the videos and respond to the following questions.
Frequencies of ground and building resonance
https://www.iris.edu/hq/inclass/animation/building resonance the resonant frequency of different seismic waves
9. Hard rocks or softer sediment have a higher frequency of occurrence.
What happens if the period of ground motion equals the natural resonance of a building?
Buildings that are safer to design
http://www.iris.edu/hq/inclass/video/build a better wall demo why buildings fail.
10. After watching the movie, complete this drawing of a four-story building with structures that will make it more earthquake resistant.
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. 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Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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