Earth science Essay Assignment
Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References
Earth science Essay Assignment
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WATER ON MARS & LIGHT FROM THE STARS
Welcome to the final lab activity of GEO 101C! In the first part of this week’s lab, we will leave Earth behind and venture to our neighboring planet of Mars. Using Google Mars, we will explore the terrain of the Red Planet, looking at evidence of past water flow across its surface.
In the second part of the lab, you will build a spectrometer, a device for observing the spectra of different light sources. Spectrometers enable astronomers to determine the composition of distant stars, as well as how far away they are from us. Before beginning this lab, take a few minutes to review the list of materials required to complete Part 2, on page 6.
Your final product for this lab will be a lab report. It is not necessary to submit this worksheet. Your report should cover all of the questions you have answered here (in paragraph essay form, not question and answer format). It should discuss how these two tools – Google Mars and spectrometers – can be used to study distant places (planets and stars).
Part 1: Water on Mars
Begin by clicking here (Links to an external site.) to open the website containing the location files you will use this week. Under “Other Materials”, click on “Placemarks – Mars Fluvial Features” to download the file to your computer. Once it is downloaded, open it, and it should open automatically in Google Earth Pro.
Once Mars appears, you’ll have a different set of layers from Google Earth to explore. The Global Maps layer can be used to change the surface layer (you may have to expand this folder to see these options):
\use the radio button to choose the layer and click the blue layer name to bring up a brief description of that dataset. The “Visible Imagery” contains the highest quality images, but the Viking Color Imagery layer is more uniform and may be easier to use in some places. The Daytime Infrared, Nighttime Infrared, and Colorized Terrain are interesting to explore but will not be used here.
- Locate the volcano Apollinaris Mons (also called Apollinaris Patera). The placemark is located on one side of the caldera: zoom out so you can see the flanks of the volcano as well.
- Describe the linear features that surround Apollinaris: if these were stream channels, what type of drainage would this be? To answer that question, click here (Links to an external site.) to view a number of different drainage patterns; which one fits the features around Apollinaris the best? Include a simple sketch of the drainage below; take a digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report.
- Consider the material that makes up Apollinaris: what does the presence of these linear channels suggest about the strength (ability to resist erosion) of the underlying material? Suggest an appropriate composition for this material as part of your answer (note the brief description given of Apollinaris in the instructions above.)
- Locate the feature Warrego Valles. This question is best answered using an “eye alt” of about 200 km/120 miles – set your zoom level so the eye alt value in the lower right corner of the window is about 200 km or 120 miles.
In the space below, sketch the general shape of Warrego Valles. Take a digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report. What type of drainage does this appear to be – and what implications does this have for how Warrego Valles might have formed? Again, use this resource (Links to an external site.) to help identify the type of drainage pattern present.
- Locate the crater Orson Welles and examine the valley that starts at the crater’s NE rim (Shalbatana Valles). Briefly describe the valley below. Include a simple sketch of the valley; take a digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report. Identify any evidence of erosion/deposition in the valley floor and suggest a process by which this valley may have formed.
- Locate Noctis Labyrinthus (this feature is on the western edge of Vallis Marineris, the “Grand Canyon of Mars”).
- Assume that water has flowed through this area: what type of drainage pattern is present here? Include a simple sketch of the drainage; take a digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report. Again, use this resource (Links to an external site.) to help identify the type of drainage pattern present.
- What does this type of drainage pattern suggest about the underlying bedrock?
- Locate the “Feature in Eberswalde”, and zoom to an “eye alt” of 11 miles / 18 km with the placemark in the center of the window.
Sketch the feature below and suggest how it may have formed (this is very much a mystery, with no right answer). Take a digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report.
Part 2: Light from the Stars (Building a Spectrometer)
The instructions below describe how to build a spectrometer. Here is a link if you wish to view the site where the instructions are from: Lab, Camera, Action: Make your own CD spectrometer (Links to an external site.).
- A CD or DVD that can be sacrificed to this project. Old software CDROMs work great.
- A cereal box. Any size that can hold a CD or DVD disk will do.
- A sharp knife or razor blade to cut into the cereal box.
Our spectroscope has three main parts. There is a slit made from a razor blade to make a path for the light, a diffraction grating made from a CD disk, and a viewing port.
To construct your spectroscope, you need to put a slice in one side of the box at roughly a 30-degree angle. This will hold the CD. Place the CD in the slot to determine where to place the other two cuts. On the top of the box, cut a hole about half an inch to an inch square above the CD. On the side opposite the CD, make a very narrow slit opposite the CD. Alternatively, you can cut a larger slit, and cover it with 2 pieces of foil to control the size of the slit. Spectroscope complete!
Photograph your finished spectrometer and include the photo in your lab report.
Once you have assembled your spectroscope with the instructions in the lecture and above, use it to examine the spectra of three different light sources. Make sure that at least one of them is the sun or moon, but the others can be incandescent lights, compact fluorescent bulbs, LED lights, halogen or xenon bulbs, televisions, computer screens, candles, fireplaces, etc. Aim the slit towards the light source you are investigating, then look through the viewing hole to see the spectrum on the disk.
Answer the following questions:
- Identify each light source you viewed and describe the spectra you observed from that source. For each description, include colors, if the colors are blended together or separated, and if the colors are fuzzy or distinct.
- What feature of the light source do the spectra represent? In other words, what is it that you are actually analyzing?
- Why do you think spectrometers are so valuable for studying celestial objects?
Part 3: The Report
Write up your lab in a well-crafted report. The report should cover all the questions from Part 1 and Part 2, along with photos of all of your sketches from Part 1 and of your completed spectrometer in Part 2. Also include a discussion of how these two tools for studying distant worlds, Google Mars and a spectrometer, enable us to make new discoveries. Please adhere to APA formatting guidelines according to the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA Requirements (Links to an external site.) for all three parts of this lab.
Earth science Essay Assignment
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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