Differences between qualitative and quantitative variables
Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References
Differences between qualitative and quantitative variables
Background Information on the Assignment: You are required to answer all. In order to answer the questions, you will need to refer to the Excel data file provided.
You will need to communicate your findings accordingly. Remember, how you present your answers is very important. Convey the findings in the clearest, simplest way. Always provide evidence and make appropriate references to tables and charts produced.
Presentation Your assignment must be clearly set out, well labelled and easy to follow. You must use an appropriate font size. Font size 12 is desirable. Any appropriate font type is acceptable. You must also draw borders and label all graphs appropriately. Please spell-check your answers before submitting. Please note that three (3) marks will be deducted for poor presentation.
Telecommunications service 100 marks
A consulting firm is investigating the level of service provided by a telecommunication company in resolving customer issues. Data was obtained from a sample of 999 customer reviews which included variables such as age, income, number of enquiries made to resolve issue, etc. This information is available in the file A1_Data.xlsx, which has columns containing the following variables.
- Customer_ID: customer’s ID
- Age: age = 1
- Gender: 1 = female, 0 =male
- Married: marital status, Y = married, N = otherwise
- Postcode: postcode
- Employment: 1 = Employed, 0 = Unemployed
- Time Spent: time spent to resolve the issue (minutes)
- Rating: rating for the service from 1 to 5 (1=the lowest, 5=the highest)
- Enquiries: number of enquiries made to resolve the issue
Based on the data provided, answer the following questions:
- Select two different kinds of qualitative variables and two different kinds of quantitative variables. State whether the variable is nominal, ordinal, discrete or continuous. Explain your reasoning in each case. 5 marks
- Is the data “cross-sectional” or “time-series” data? Explain your answer.
- A recent report states the following: i. there is an even spread of the number of enquiries made to resolve the issue. ii. ratings are quite evenly distributed. Do you agree with these two statements? Justify your answers for both statements by providing relevant tables for each statement. 8 marks
- Construct two Pivot Tables using the number of enquiries and age groups, one using percentage column total and the other row total. (Hint: Group age using interval widths of 15 years, beginning with 16 years of age). 6 marks
- For each level of enquiry,
- which is the dominant age group? Are they younger or older customers?
- why is this the case?
Support your discussion with the aid of a table. 5 marks
- Are male customers making more enquiries than female customers? Provide a brief explanation. Support your answer with the aid of a table. 6 marks
- Complete the following tables of summary statistics of time spent for each of the following two variables:
Hint: sort the data by Gender, then calculate the summary statistics of time spent for the two genders separately.
- Rating (in two groups 1-3 and 4-5)
Hint: sort the data by Rating, then calculate the summary statistics of time spent for the rating from 1 to 3 group and rating from 4 to 5 group separately.
Give your answers in the following tables to two decimal places and make sure you indicate units. 10 marks
Time Spent Male Female Mean Median Standard Deviation First Quartile Third Quartile Interquartile Range Range Minimum Maximum Coefficient of Variation
Time Spent Rating 1-3 Rating 4-5 Mean Median Standard Deviation First Quartile Third Quartile Interquartile Range Range Minimum Maximum Coefficient of Variation
- Construct percentage frequency histograms of the Time Spent for the two rating groups:
1) Rating 1-3
2) Rating 4-5
Hint: You may need to sort the data by Rating, then copy the Time Spent data with rating 1-3 to the column K (under the variable name “Time (Rating 1-3)”) and that with rating 45 to the column M (under the variable name “Time (Rating 4-5)”) separately. In the histogram, group Time Spent using interval widths of 8 minutes, beginning with 0 minutes. 8 marks
- Based on your answers obtained in parts g and h, compare the distribution of the variable Time Spent for the two rating groups (Low: rating 1-3 and High: rating 4-5), discussing typical values (i.e. “central tendency”), how spread out the values are (“variability”), and the shape of the distributions. Which of the genders shows more variability in Time Spent? Explain using appropriate evidence. Quote the values to two decimal places and make sure you indicate units. 15 marks
- Create a pivot table of the mean Time Spent – broken down by Gender (COLUMNS) and Rating (ROWS). Group the rating variable into two groups (Low: rating 1-3 and High: rating 4-5). Using the suggested approach to pivot table analysis, analyse how the time spent is related to the gender and rating groups. Be sure to quote relevant figures. Give your answers in the pivot table to two decimal places and make sure you indicate units. 15 marks
- Using Excel’s Pivot Table function, obtain the following tables and copy them into your Word document. Use the “Tabular Form” report layout and label your tables accurately and informatively. Round off percentage values to one decimal place.
Table 1: frequency distribution of the customers – broken down by High (4-5) and Low Rating (1-3) (“COLUMNS”) and Gender (“ROWS”).
Table 2: the frequency distribution of Table 1, but with values shown as “% of Grand Total”.
Table 3: the frequency distribution of Table 1, but with values shown as “% of Column Total”.
Table 4: the frequency distribution of Table 1, but with values shown as “% of Row Total”.
- Based on the tables generated in part (k), answer the following questions. Be sure to state the table you have used.
- i) How many customers provide a high rating? 2 marks
- ii) What proportion of customers gave a low rating? 2 marks
iii) If a customer who provides a high rating is selected at random, what is the probability they are male? 3 marks
- iv) Are female customers more likely to provide a high rating? 3 marks
- v) What is the probability that a customer gave a low rating and is female?
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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