Complex Software Communication Systems
Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References
Complex Software Communication Systems
Part I. Two Opening Vignettes
1.) WhatsApp, an instant messaging app for smartphones, allows users to send text messages, documents, images, videos, user location data, and other data over the internet to other WhatsApp users, using standard cellular mobile numbers. In the past, WhatsApp has been a strong defender of its users’ privacy, employing end-to-end encryption for all messages sent through its service and regularly resisting requests from authorities for data access. As a result, WhatsApp has been the instant messaging app of choice for users who wish to keep their conversations private, including individuals working to expose corruption within organizations and those reporting on the activities of totalitarian governments.
Facebook purchased WhatsApp for $22 billion in 2014. After the sale to Facebook was announced, WhatsApp CEO and cofounder Jan Koum declared that nothing would change with the company’s privacy practices. Indeed, Koum posted that ‘If partnering with Facebook meant that we had to change our values, we wouldn’t have done it.’ This statement has come back to haunt him.
In the fall of 2016, WhatsApp announced atht it would begin providing user data—including phone numbers, usage data, and information on devices and operating systems being used—to Facebook and the ‘Facebook family of companies.’ According to the company, this information allows Facebook to make better friend suggestions and display more relevant ads to users while also allowing businesses to send messages to users, including appointment reminders, delivery and shipping notifications, and marketing pitches. The policy shift is intended to help WhatsApp generate more revenue and makes economic sense; however, the change has raised concerns over the privacy of users’ conversations and identities and has upset users drawn to the app by the company’s previous strong stance on privacy.
Is this policy shift by WhatsApp morally justified? Answer yes or no and explain your answer:
2.) Airlines use a variety of information systems to support daily operations such as flight dispatching, flight-path planning (which must take into account multiple facets, including aircraft weight and performance data, en route winds, weather and turbulence forecasts, airspace restrictions, and airport conditions), crew scheduling, passenger check-in, and preflight passenger and baggage weight balancing. Complex software systems also support the airlines’ ground-to-cockpit communications, ticket sales, and frequent-flier program administration. As crucial as all of these systems are to the daily operations of the airlines, however the underlying software is often surprisingly buggy and subject to failure. In the six-month time period from August 2016 to February 2017, American, Delta, JetBlue, Southwest Airlines, United Continental, and Virgin America, in total, experienced a dozen system failures, resulting in tens of thousands of flight delays and cancellations, stranded and upset passengers, and hundreds of millions dollars in lost revenue. These incidents have reinforced the fear among many frequent flyers that such system disruptions are now the norm in the airline industry.
Airlines are typically reluctant to provide details about these operational problems or to communicate the root causes—other than to issue a statement when such a system breakdown occurs, indicating there had been some sort of software failure. However, the frequency and seriousness of these meltdowns demonstrate the vulnerability of the airline computer system and raise some fundamental underlying questions:
- Over the course of a decade or more, the trend in the U.S. airline industry has been toward consolidation. Large-scale mergers of U.S. airlines—-including the mergers of Delta and Northwest (2008-2010), United and Continental (2010-2012), Southwest Airlines and AirTran (2011), and American Airlines and US Airways (2013-2015)—have resulted in an industry in which four large carriers now handle 85 percent of domestic capacity.
- Many airline systems are decades-old—-dating back to the 1990s, or in some cases, even earlier. Although these systems have been updated, patched, and modified to keep up with the many changes in the way the airlines conduct their business, many of them have become increasingly unstable and unreliable.
- The airlines have implemented a complex infrastructure of interconnected hardware and software. If a glitch occurs in one component of the system, the problem often progresses in a domino effect that can wipe out multiple, important facets of system functionality.
Name two major changes, from an IT-perspective, that the airlines should make to improve this situation:
Part II. 2 cases
- Google AdWords is an advertising service for companies who want their ads presented on the pool of over 2 million websites that constitute the Google Display Network. Google ads are bought and placed online using an automated system called programmatic advertising that finds appropriate websites on which to place each ad. Placement depends on such factors as keywords used in the ads and the interests and demographics of the target audiences.
YouTube was bought by Google for $1.7 billion in November 2006. Today, YouTube has over a billion active users and everyday people spend hundreds of millions of hours watching video on YouTube. Such massive viewership has made it a key member of the Google Display Network.
YouTube’s popularity stems from its massive and diverse library of video spanning very things from amateur video clips of kittens to professionally produced TV clips. While this diversity is a huge asset for Google, it has also forced the company defend the placement of ads alongside objectionable content, including videos promoting anti-Semitism, heterosexism, misogyny, racism, and terrorism. Companies advertising on Youtube are concerned that such placement creates the impression that they support pornography or hate speech. And because YouTube splits advertising revenue with its video creators, advertisers risk directly funding creators of this objectionable material. Those who post videos cane earn up to $7.60 for each 1,000 views that an advertisement attracts. Some of the most viewed extremist clips on YouTube receive nearly one million hits. Major brands such as AT&T, Coca-Cola, Johnson & Johnson, L’Oréal, McDonald’s , and Verizon have begun withholding ad dollars saying that they can no longer advertise on YouTube until Google can ensure that this won’t happen again. The financial hit to Google from the boycott is significant—estimated at as high as $750 million.
With some 400 hours of user-generated content uploaded to YouTube every minute, Google has asserted that it simply doesn’t to have the resources to police that flood of content in real time. As a result, inappropriate and offensive content continues to be posted. This has advertisers, who place a high priority on protecting their brands, increasingly concerned. Google’s efforts to solve the problem include the hiring of ‘significant numbers’ of new workers to review YouTube content and flag inappropriate content as well as making an ongoing investment in artificial intelligence that the company hopes will help it fine-tune its ad placement service. Google has considerable incentive to resolve the concerns of advertisers as ad system sales brought in more than $79 billion revenue to the company in 2016.
Should Google provide advertisers with guarantees about what type of content their ads will appear next to? Answer yes or no and explain, pointing out the major moral points involved:
- When some 250 IT workers at Walt Disney Parks and Resorts were laid off in 2015, a condition of their severance pay required some of them to train their replacements—-workers from India who were in the United States on H-1B visas. Two of the displaced workers filed class action suits claiming that HCL and Cognizant Technology Solutions colluded with Disney to make false statements on certain forms when petitioning for workers to receive H-1B status. This suit alleged that those false statements were violations of the Civil Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act.
HCL and Cognizant are consulting firms that import workers to the United States on H-1B visas and then contract them out to U.S. firms. HCL is an India-based IT services company with 116,000 employees and annual revenue of $7 billion. Cognizant is a U.S.-based professional services company with annual revenue of $13 billion and over 260,000 employees (75 percent of whom are employed in India).
The Immigration and Nationality Act sets forth certain prerequisites for employers wishing to employ H-1B workers in the United States. To obtain H-1B status approval, the employer must first file a Labor Condition Application (LCA), Form ETA 9035, with the Department of Labor. The employer must state that it will: (1) pay the nonimmigrant workers at least the local prevailing wage or the employers’ actual wage, whichever is higher; (2) pay for nonproductive time in certain circumstances; (3) offer benefits on the same basis as for U.S. workers; and (4) provide working conditions for H-1B workers that will not adversely affect the working conditions of workers similarly employed.
The U.S. District judge presiding over the case concluded that the facts failed to substantiate the RICO claim because declarations that the employment of H-1B workers would not adversely impact its U.S. workers did not pertain to Disney employees but rather employees of HCL. In addition, a certification that H-1B employees world not displace American workers does not apply to so-called exempt H-1B workers who are paid at least $60,000 a year and possess certain education or skill levels. The judge dismissed the case, stating that HCL’s statements weren’t false, and would only have been false if HCL’s own workers were adversely affected by the visa program.
Name two major changes in the processing and proposal of H-1B visas that U.S. domestic workers would likely want to be made:
Part III. 10 What Would You Do? Questions
1.) Your old roommate from the University of Findlay was recently let go from his firm during a wave of employee terminations to reduce costs. You two have kept in touch over the six years since graduation, and he has asked you to do him a solid and help him get a position in the IT organization where you work. You offered to review his resume and to make sure that it got to the “right person,” and even put in a good word for him. However, as you read the resume, it is obvious that your friend has greatly exaggerated his accomplishments at his former place of work and even added some IT-related certifications you are sure he never earned. What Would You Do?
2.) You are in charge of awarding all computer hardware service contracts (valued at over $2 million per year) for your employer. In recent e–mails with the company’s current service contractor, you casually mentioned that you were looking to buy a new car and that you really liked “Beamers” (which he seemed to understood as an out-of-date reference to BMWs), but they were too expensive. You are surprised when the contactor texted you the name of the sales manager at a local BMW dealer and suggested you give him a call. The contractor says the owner of the dealership is a good friend and he will be able to give you a great deal on a sweet Beamer. What Should You Do?
3.) You are a computer security trainer for your firm’s 200 employees and contract workers. What are the key topics you would cover in your initial half-hour basic training program on security for non-IT personnel? Name at least five distinct topics:
4.) Your friend is going through a tough time with his current significant other and believes she is cheating on him. He is aware of your technical prowess (but unaware of your having taken a course in ethics and technology, although for this guy, it likely wouldn’t much matter) and has asked you to, quote-unquote, “do him a solid,” and to “be a real bro” by helping him purchase and install a stalking app on her cell phone. He explains he regularly sneaks her phone of her Justin Bieber knapsack which she leaves in his car when she goes to Planet Fitness. He is always on the lookout for messages from “strange dudes.” Would it be morally justified to install this app? Answer yes or no and explain.
5.) You are a recent UF graduate with only a year of experience with your employer. You were recently promoted to manage all of e-mail services. You are quite surprised to receive a phone call at home on Saturday during The Ohio State Buckeyes football game against the Michigan Wolverines. It was from the Chief Financial Officer of the firm asking that you immediately delete all e-mail from all e-mail servers, including the archive and back-up servers, that is older than six months. She states that the reason for her request is that there have been an increasing number of complaints about the slowness of e mail services. In addition, she says she is concerned about the costs of storing so much e mail. She then yells “Go Bucks” and hangs up. Would it be morally justified for you carry out this request? Answer yes or no and explain:
6.) A coworker confides to you that he is going to begin sending e mails to your employer’s internal corporate blog site, which serves as a suggestion box. He plans to use an anonymous remailer and s sign the messages “Anonymous.” Your friend is afraid of retribution from superiors but wants to call attention to instances of racial and gender discrimination observed during is give years as an employee with the firm. Name three important points about becoming a whistle-blower this coworker should first consider before he begins sending the e mails:
7.) You are a programmer for a firm that develops a popular tax-preparation software package designed to help individuals prepare their federal tax returns. In the course of testing some small changes that were made to the software, you detect an error in the software that results in roughly a five percent underestimation of the amount owed—-both for those who indicated that they were single and for those who indicated that they were married but filing separate tax returns. It is now late March, and it is likely that well over 100,000 users who submitted their returns using your firm’s software will be affected by this error. Morally, what should you say to your manager in this situation? Provide your response:
8.) You have been assigned to manage software that controls the shutdown of the new chemical reactors to be installed at a manufacturing plant. Your manger insists the software is not safety crucial. The software senses temperatures and pressures within a 50,000-gallon stainless steel vat and dumps in chemical retardants to slow down the reaction if it gets out of control. In the worst possible scenario, failure to stop a runaway reaction would result in a large explosion that would send fragments of the vat and spray caustic liquid flying for hundreds of yards in all directions. Your manger points out that the human workers in charge of the reactor will be able to intervene in the case of a software failure to protect the plant employees and the surrounding neighborhood. Besides, he argues, the plant is already more than a year behind its scheduled start-up date. He cannot afford the additional time required to develop the software if it is classified as safety critical. Would you be morally justified in treating this project as not safety critical? Answer yes or no and explain your answer.
9.) You have volunteered to lead a group of local citizens in approaching the board of directors of the nearest hospital (55 miles away) about establishing remote monitoring of 25 or so chronically ill people in your small community in Alaska. Name three facts that would be most important and two services you will most likely need:
10.) You are interviewing for the role of human resources manager for a network hardware design and manufacturing firm. Over the last year, the firm has lost a number of high-level executives who left the firm to go to work for competitors. During the course of your interview, you are asked what three measures you would put in place to reduce the potential loss of trade secrets from executives leaving the firm. Name the three:
Part IV. 1 Anonymous Question
Are actions taken by Anonymous and related groups ever morally justified? Yes/no and explain:
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
GET THIS PROJECT NOW BY CLICKING ON THIS LINK TO PLACE THE ORDER
Do You Have Any Other Essay/Assignment/Class Project/Homework Related to this? Click Here Now [CLICK ME]and Have It Done by Our PhD Qualified Writers!!
Tired of getting an average grade in all your school assignments, projects, essays, and homework? Try us today for all your academic schoolwork needs. We are among the most trusted and recognized professional writing services in the market.
We provide unique, original and plagiarism-free high quality academic, homework, assignments and essay submissions for all our clients. At our company, we capitalize on producing A+ Grades for all our clients and also ensure that you have smooth academic progress in all your school term and semesters.
High-quality academic submissions, A 100% plagiarism-free submission, Meet even the most urgent deadlines, Provide our services to you at the most competitive rates in the market, Give you free revisions until you meet your desired grades and Provide you with 24/7 customer support service via calls or live chats.