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Bunker Hill Community College Simulation of Estimation of Population Size Paper

Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References

Instructions:Question Description

I’m working on a environmental science project and need a sample draft to help me study.

BEFORE YOU BEGIN: Review, in depth, the document in “General Course Information” titled “How to Write Your Lab Report”. In addition, review the examples provided, and make use of the template that is found in that area. In order to be considered complete, all lab reports must include the required five sections (intro, objectives, hypothesis, results, and discussion). And lastly, consider the depth and substance of the discussion sections in the examples provided. You are expected to include the same level of depth in your own discussion section.

Introduction

If you were to go into an ecosystem, lets say a field, and then you spent some time trying to capture a few organisms, lets say crickets – it is very unlikely that you caught all of the crickets in that field. The fact is you caught some fraction of the entire population of crickets in the area.

You can think of it like a fraction:

Lets call the entire population N.

Lets call the number caught n1.

So, we get:

number of crickets caught (n1) / the entire cricket population (N)

Now lets pretend that you put a small paint mark on the crickets that you caught and then put them back where you caught them. The next day you go out and catch some crickets again. You will probably catch some that you marked with paint and some new ones. The number of marked (recaptured crickets) compared to the total number of crickets that you caught on the second try is a fraction:

Lets call the total number of crickets caught on the second day n2

Lets call the number of marked or recaptured crickets R

As a result:

marked or recaptured crickets on 2nd day = R

total number of crickets caught 2nd day = n2

In most cases the ratio of R/n2 is similar to the n1/N. So the ratio of recaptured crickets to total number of crickets caught on the second day is similar to the number of crickets caught on the first day compared to the total number of crickets in the area sampled (or cricket population).

By combining the fractions we get

N = ( n1 n2)/R

N = total population

n1 = total organisms captured on the first day

n2 = total organism captured on the second day

R = total number recaptured organisms on the second day

If we capture organisms one day, mark them, release them, then go back on a second day and capture organisms again we can use the formula above to estimate the entire population of that organism in the area.

Lets use our crickets as an example.

Example

Day 1: We capture 23 crickets in 4 m2 area (this is our n1) we mark them with a little dot of paint

on their backs we let them go in the same place where we caught them.

Day 2: We go to the same 4 m2 plot. We catch 21 crickets (this is our n2). Of the 21 crickets we catch on this day 10 are marked with little a paint dots. Thus, we recaptured 10 crickets (this is our R).

We use the formula to estimate the number of crickets in our plot:

N = (n1 n2)/R = (23 x 21)/10 = cricket population is 48.3 crickets/ 4m2

Required Materials

Part 1 – One or two sheets of paper.

Part 2 meter stick or tape measure

white out or paint

toothpick

scissors

Procedure

Here you will create a pretend population of animals (small squares of paper) and then simulate the capture recapture method of estimating populations. You will be using the capture recapture formula (seen above) three times and then taking an average.

Getting Started

First you will make your pretend animal population.Using scissors and a piece of paper, cut out 200 small squares (2cm X 2cm). The squares do not have to be exactly the same just make sure you have 200 of them.

Spread the square out evenly over a table surface.

The table surface will be acting as the ecosystem sampling area and the squares are your pretend animals.

Part 1: Simulating the capture of animals day 1 (getting n1)

1. After spreading the squares out close your eyes and randomly put one hand down on the surface of the table.

2. Pick up all of the squares underneath your hand and place them on the side.

3. Do this two more times in different locations.

4. Count up the total number of pieces of paper you have sampled (three tries).

5. This will represent the captured animals on day 1. Record this number as n1.

Part 2: Simulating the recapture of animals day 2 (getting n2 and R)

1. With a pen put a #1 on all of the pieces of paper, then return then to the table.

2. Mix all of the paper pieces together (the ones mark with #1 and the ones that you did not pick up) and spread them out again on the table surface.

3. Once mixed, randomly select your paper animal squares again as you did before.

4. Count up the total number of captured pieces of paper on this second try record this number as your n2.

5. Then count how many of the pieces picked up this second time have the #1 on them.

6. Record them as recaptured animals or R.

Part 3: Estimating the population of your paper square animals.

Using the formula for estimating the population (shown above) calculate the N -population of paper animals.

n1 = number of pieces of paper capture on the first try (three handfuls)

n2 = number of pieces of paper captured on the second try (three handfuls).

R = the number of n2 pieces that were marked #1.

Calculate the population of your paper bugs

N = n1 n2 / R

Record your estimated population.

Now repeat the procedures followed to estimate the population two more times (remember you dont have to really wait 24 hrs between n1 and n2, this is just a simulation).

Average your three population calculations.

Results Section

1. Using a table or just text, write out the data collected for the paper simulation portion of this lab.

2. Include, the your n1, n2, R and N for each of your trials.

3. Then calculate the average N for each of the trials.

Discussion Section

Look at the following questions and be sure to include them in your discussion section.

Did the mathematical estimate of population come out close to 200? Why or why not?

In the real world with real animals what factors might influence this type of capture recapture calculation?

Why would we even need mathematical formulas to calculate population?

Remember in this simulation you created the animals and already knew the population. Would this happen in the real world?

RUBRIC

QUALITY OF RESPONSENO RESPONSEPOOR / UNSATISFACTORYSATISFACTORYGOODEXCELLENTC ontent (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points)Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper.20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking.30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking.40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete.50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing.Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points).Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper.5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6^{th}Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper.10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6^{th}Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources.15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6^{th}Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources.20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6^{th}Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment.Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points)Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper.5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage.20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free.Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points)Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper.3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6^{th}edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6^{th}edition requirements whatsoever.5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6^{th}edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment.10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6^{th}edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.## GET THIS PROJECT NOW BY CLICKING ON THIS LINK TO PLACE THE ORDER

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