1/2 Econ 3818 Spring 2020 R exercise 3
Assignment ID Number AFFGEHU83939HD Type of Document Essay Writing Format APA/MLA/Harvard Academic Level Masters/University References/Sources 4 References
on Canvas as a pdf file. Write up your answers and paste the R code used in a word document. Separate the R code above and below by two asterisk (**).
Copy and paste all plots generated into the word document. Saved the document as a pdf and submit it via Canvas. You may work in groups of three (but no
more than three!) but every person has to submit a file individually. If you worked in a group, please put the name of all group members at the top of the text
file. R has several functions built-in that can be used to calculate probabilities associated with known probability distributions. When in doubt, dont forget
that you can always type help(function) for documentation! For example, help(qnorm) might help for question 1. 1. You sample 100 peoples showering habits
and find the average shower time is 12.2 minutes. Given that the population variance shower time is 15, use the qnorm() command to construct an 86%
confidence interval for a sample mean. Make sure you are using qnorm() correctly. Note: qnorm() returns the critical value Z corresponding to the limit of the
left tail containing the probability that you state. For a C=90% percent confidence interval, you want 5% in each tail, i.e. Pr=(1-C)/2=0.05. so you would use
qnorm(0.95). See file Rday3.R on Canvas for more details. 2. Load the housing data weve been using: housing_df<-
read.csv(“https://mattbutner.github.io/data/housing_df.csv”) Use a combination of the mean(), sd(), length(), qnorm(), and sqrt() functions to construct a 90%
confidence interval for the mean of the CRIM variable (assume that the standard deviation in the population is the same as the standard deviation in our
sample). Interpret the confidence interval. 3. Download the file CI_sim.R from Canvas. This file simulates a bunch of random samples of the same size,
constructs the mean and a confidence interval for each sample, and reports the percent of the confidence intervals that capture the true population mean.
Make sure you have sample_size <- 100 num_samples <- 50 ci_level <-0.95 set up in the beginning of the document. You will need to install the user written
package ggplot2. To do this, type install.packages(ggplot2) into the console before you run the R script. You will need to be connected to the internet. For
more information, see https://ggplot2.tidyverse.org/.2/2 No need to provide the R code for the following questions. a. Suppose you increase the sample size
from 100 to 200. i. What happens to the width of the confidence intervals? ii. Does the true population mean fall inside more of the confidence intervals? b.
Return the sample size back to 100. Now change the number of samples from 50 to 100. i. How does this change the percentage of the confidence intervals
that capture the population mean? ii. As you increase the number of samples towards infinity, what percentage of the confidence intervals will capture the true
population mean? c. Return the number of samples back to 50. Now change the confidence level to 0.8. i. How does the width of the confidence intervals
change? ii. Does the percentage of confidence intervals that capture the population mean increase or decrease? 4. You started taking the bus to work. The
local transit authority says that a bus should arrive at your bus stop every five minutes. After a while, you notice you spend a lot more than five minutes waiting
for the bus, so you start to keep a record. You spend the next two months recording how long it takes for the bus to arrive to the bus stop. This give a total of
sixty observations that denote the number of minutes it took for the bus to arrive (rounded to the nearest minute). These observations are hosted at
https://mattbutner.github.io/data/bus_stop_time.csv a. Load that dataset into R as a data frame titled bus_stop_time using the read.csv() command. b. Create
a histogram of the time_until_bus variable. Would you say that five minutes is a reasonable guess for the average arrival time based on this picture alone? c.
Create 95% confidence interval for the bus arrival times using the z distribution. Does 5 minutes fall within the 95% confidence interval? (assume that the
standard deviation in the population is the same as the standard deviation in our sample). 5./! This questions had to be answered independently by every
student, even if the rest of the assignment was done in a group. Identify, and download, the data set you plan on using for the R data project. Verify there is at
least fifty observations, three quantitative variables, and two categorical variables.
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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